Guide Aragonaise from Le Cid

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In the Paris of the s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed. It was Bizet. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score; the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard.

Aragonaise from Le Cid

On the right, a door to the tobacco factory. At the back, a bridge. On the left, a guardhouse. A group of soldiers relaxes in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard and commenting on the passers-by. As the women go back to t. Classical music Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music.

While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from to , this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between and , known as the common-practice period.

The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the lateth century, impressionism that overlaps from the lateth century neoclassicism , predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.

Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age.

The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the s and s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works.

Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score.

This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated. The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago.

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Musical notation enables s-era performers to sing a choral work from the s Renaissance era or a s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.

The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era.

In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, which has become one of the most popular and performed works in the entire opera repertoire. During a brilliant student career at the Conservatoire de Paris , Bizet won many prizes, including the prestigious Prix de Rome in , he was recognised as an outstanding pianist , though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and performed in public.

Returning to Paris after three years in Italy , he found that the main Parisian opera theatres preferred the established classical repertoire to the works of newcomers, his keyboard and orchestral compositions were largely ignored. Restless for success, he began many theatrical projects during the s, most of which were abandoned. The production of Bizet's final opera, was delayed because of fears that its themes of betrayal and murder would offend audiences. After its premiere on 3 March , Bizet was convinced. After his death, his work, apart from Carmen, was neglected.

Manuscripts were given away or lost, published versions of his works were revised and adapted by other hands, he had no obvious disciples or successors. After years of neglect, his works began to be performed more in the 20th century. Commentators have acclaimed him as a composer of brilliance and originality whose premature death was a significant loss to French musical theatre.

His father, Adolphe Bizet, had been a hairdresser and wigmaker before becoming a singing teacher despite his lack of formal training. He composed a few works, including at least one published song. At least one author has alleged that his mother was from a Jewish family but this is not substantiated in any of his official biographies. Georges, an only child, showed early aptitude for music and picked up the basics of musical notation from his mother, who gave him his first piano lessons. By listening at the door of the room where Adolphe conducted his classes, Georges learned to sing difficult songs from memory and developed an ability to identify and analyse complex chordal structures.


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This precocity convinced his ambitious parents that he was ready to begin studying at the Conservatoire though he was still only nine years old. Georges was interviewed by Joseph Meifred, the horn virtuoso , a member of the Conservatoire's Committee of Studies. Meifred was so struck by the boy's demonstration of his skills that he waived the age rule and offered to take him as soon as a place became available.

Bizet was admitted to the Conservatoire on 9 October two weeks before his 10th birthday, he made an early impression. Zimmerman gave Bizet private lessons in counterpoint and fugue , which continued until the old man's death in Bizet would write to Marmontel : "In your class one learns something besides the piano. Bizet's first preserved compositions, two wordless songs for soprano , date from around Two of his songs, "Petite Marguerite" and "La Rose et l'abeille", were published in In , he wrote an ambitious overture for a large orchestra, prepared four-hand piano versions of two of Gounod's works: the opera La nonne sanglante and the Symphony in D.

Bizet's work on the Gounod symphony inspired him, shortly after his seventeenth birthd. The two most staged are Manon and Werther , he composed oratorios, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces and other music. While still a schoolboy, Massenet was admitted to France's principal music college, the Paris Conservatoire. There he studied under Ambroise Thomas , whom he admired. After winning the country's top musical prize, the Prix de Rome , in , he composed prolifically in many genres, but became best known for his operas.

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Massenet had a good sense of what would succeed with the Parisian public. Despite some miscalculations, he produced a series of successes that made him the leading composer of opera in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Like many prominent French composers of the period, Massenet became a professor at the Conservatoire.

He taught composition there from until , when he resigned after the death of the director, Ambroise Thomas. By the time of his death, Massenet was regarded by many critics as old-fashioned and unadventurous although his two best-known operas remained popular in France and abroad. After a few decades of neglect, his works began to be favourably reassessed during the midth century, many of them have since been staged and recorded. Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger. By early the family had moved to Paris. On his return he resumed his studies. The family's finances were no longer comfortable, to support himself Massenet took private piano students and played as a percussionist in theatre orchestras, his work in the orchestra pit gave him a good working knowledge of the operas of Gounod and other composers and contemporary.

Traditionally, many students at the Conservatoire went on to substantial careers as church organists, he gained some work as a piano accompanist, in the course of which he met Wagner who, along with Berlioz , was one of his two musical heroes. Having graduated to the composition class under Ambroise Thomas, Massenet was entered for the Conservatoire's top musical honour, the Prix de Rome, previous winners of which included Berlioz, Thomas and Bizet ; the first two of these were on the judging panel for the competition.

All the competitors had to set the same text by a cantata about David Rizzio. He recalled: Ambroise Thomas , my beloved master, came towards me and said, "Embrace Berlioz, you owe him a great deal for your prize. Monsieur Auber comforted me. Did I need comforting? He said to Berlioz pointing to me, "He'll go far, the young rascal, when he's had less experience!

At that time the academy was dominated by painters rather than musicians. Entr'acte Entr'acte means "between the acts". It can mean a pause between two parts of a stage production, synonymous to an intermission , but it more indicates a piece of music performed between acts of a theatrical production. In the case of stage musicals, the entr'acte serves as the overture of act 2. In films that were meant to be shown with an intermission, there was a specially recorded entr'acte on the soundtrack between the first and second half of the film, although this practice has died out in recent years.

Entr'actes resulted from stage curtains being closed for set or costume changes: to fill time as not to halt the dramatic action, to make a transition from the mood of one act to the next, or to prevent the public from becoming restless. In front of the closed curtains, the action could be continued during these entr'actes, albeit involving only players with no scenery other than the curtain, a minimum of props. An entr'acte can take the action from one part of a large-scale drama to the next by completing the missing links.

The Spanish Sainete performed a similar function. In traditional theatre, incidental music could bridge the'closed curtain' periods: ballet and drama each have a rich tradition of such musical interludes; the literal meaning of the German word, Verwandlungsmusik refers to its original function — "change music".

Entr'actes would develop into a separate genre of short theatrical realizations, that could be produced with a minimum of requisites during intermissions of other elaborate theatre pieces; these entr'actes were distinctly intended to break the action or mood with something different, such as comedy or dance. Such pieces allowed the chief players of the main piece to have a break; the idea of being an insert into a greater whole became looser: interlude sometimes has no other connotation than a "short play".

When the insert was intended only to shift the mood before returning to the main action, without a change of scene being necessary, authors could revert to a " play within a play " technique, or have some accidental guests in a ballroom perform a dance, etc. In this case the insert is a divertimento rather than an entr'acte. In the French opera tradition of the end of the 17th century and early 18th century such divertissements would become compulsory in the form of an inserted ballet passage, a tradition that continued until well into the 19th century; this was parodied by Jacques Offenbach : for example, the cancan ending Orpheus in the Underworld.

By the middle of the 18th century, a divertimento had become a separate genre of light music as well; these divertimenti could be used as interludes in stage works, many of the divertimenti composed in the last half of the 18th century appears to have lost the relation to the theatre, the music in character only having to be a "diversion" in one or another way. The intermezzo got more attention than the large-scale work to which it was added.

Mozart shows his mastery in the finale of the first act of Don Giovanni , where he mixes the divertimento-like dancing with the actual singing; the characters mingle, performing light dances, while they're supposed to be chasing each other for murder and rape. The diversion and the drama become a single multi-layered item. Bizet's opera Carmen has entr'actes before acts 2, 3 and 4. A comparable'filmic' interlude was foreseen in the early s by Alban Berg for his opera Lulu , between the two scenes of the central act.

In this case Berg only composed the music and gave a short schematic scenario for a film, not yet realised when he died in ; the Lulu interlude film, in contrast to the previous example, was intended to chain the action between the first and second half of the opera.

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Because of the symmetrical structure of this opera, the filmic interlude of Lulu is, in a manner of speaking, the axis of the opera. The first publicly performed furniture music composed by Erik Satie was premiered as entr'acte music, with this variation that it was intended as background music to the sounds the public would produce at intermission , walking around and talking; the public did not obey Satie's intention: they kept silently in their places and listened, trained by a habit of incidental music, much to the frustration of the avant-garde musicians, who tried to save their idea by inciting the public to get up, walk.

Aragon Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain , coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca and Teruel , its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain.

Covering an area of km2, the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro , Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza, it is home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January , the population of Aragon was , with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into counties.

All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom of Saraqusta , as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica , counties that formed the Kingdom of Aragon and the Crown of Aragon ; the current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in , consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe ; this emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.

The current flag was approved in , with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole.

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Aragonaise 'Le Cid': : Jules Massenet

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