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Medieval Islamic Civilization Encyclopedia

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Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia - Volume I

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Medieval Islamic Civilization - Josef Meri - Bok () | Bokus

But this Web eventually Simple. The move may enjoy magnified or the exam is only longer last. The literature, music, dance, and visual arts of Muslim peoples are treated in the article Islamic arts. Islam is also discussed in articles on individual countries or on regions in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt , Iran , Arabia , and North Africa. In general, events referred to in this article are dated according to the Gregorian calendar , and eras are designated bce before the Common Era or Christian Era and ce Common Era or Christian Era , terms which are equivalent to bc before Christ and ad Latin: anno Domini.

In some cases the Muslim reckoning of the Islamic era is used, indicated by ah Latin: anno Hegirae.

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In what follows, the terms Islamic world and Islamdom are used interchangeably. The term Islamicate refers to the social and cultural complex that is historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, including the function and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex. The potential for Muslim empire building was established with the rise of the earliest civilizations in western Asia.

It was facilitated by the expansion of trade from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean and by the political changes thus effected.

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The Muslims were heirs to the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Hebrews, even the Greeks and Indians; the societies they created bridged time and space, from ancient to modern and from east to west. The factors that surrounded and directed their accomplishment had begun to coalesce long before, with the emergence of agrarian-based citied societies in western Asia in the 4th millennium bce.

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  • The rise of complex agrarian-based societies, such as Sumer , out of a subsistence agricultural and pastoralist environment , involved the founding of cities, the extension of citied power over surrounding villages, and the interaction of both with pastoralists. This type of social organization offered new possibilities.

    Agricultural production and intercity trading, particularly in luxury goods, increased.