To these they were thought to be not inferior in courage and of equal numbers, being three hundred thousand in all, of whom one hundred and ninety thousand were fighting men. The battle was hardly over by midnight. Many came to see him, and he gave each one what he wanted, and sent all away in actual possession of some of his favours and hoping for more. Pompey and Crassus were to be elected consuls for the ensuing year, and Caesar was to have money voted him, besides another five years in his provincial command. For those who were getting so much money from Caesar urged the senate to give him money as if he had none, nay rather, they forced it to do so, though it groaned over its own decrees.
He therefore began to bridge the river, 45 although it was very broad, and at this point in its course especially swollen, rough, and impetuous, and with the trunks and branches of trees which it bore down stream kept smiting and tearing away the supports of his bridge. No one ventured to oppose him, but even the Suevi, who were the foremost nation of the Germans, bestowed themselves and their belongings in deep and woody defiles.
Caesar ravaged the country of the enemy with fire, gave encouragement to the constant friends of Rome, and then retired again into Gaul, having spent eighteen days in Germany. For he was the first to launch a fleet upon the western ocean and to sail through the Atlantic sea carrying an army to wage war. They were from his friends in Rome, and advised him of his daughter's death; she died in child-birth at Pompey's house. Then all Gaul once more broke out in revolt, 48 and great armies went about attacking the entrenchments and trying to destroy the winter-quarters of the Romans.
They had for a long time been secretly sown and cultivated by the most influential men among the most warlike tribes, and derived strength from large bodies of young men assembled from all sides in arms, from great riches brought together, from strong cities, and from countries which were hard to invade.
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His father the Gauls had put to death because they thought he was aiming at a tyranny. He purposed, now that there was a coalition at Rome against Caesar, at once to rouse all Gaul to war. These up to this time had called themselves brethren of the Romans and had been conspicuously honoured, but now, by joining the rebels, they caused great dejection in Caesar's army. In the main he got the best of the struggle, and after a long time and much slaughter overpowered the Barbarians; but it appears that at first he met with some reverse, and the Arverni show a short-sword hanging in a temple, which they say was captured from Caesar.
Thus Caesar, caught between so large hostile forces and besieged there, was compelled to build two walls for his protection, one looking towards the city, and the other towards those who had come up to relieve it; he felt that if the two forces should unite his cause was wholly lost. For now that Crassus, who was only waiting for the issue of their struggle to engage the victor, 52 had perished among the Parthians, it remained for him who would be greatest to put down him who was, and for him who was greatest, if he would not be put down, to take off in time the man he feared.
At first, then, Pompey held his peace, while Marcellus and Lentulus opposed these plans; they hated Caesar on other grounds, and went beyond all bounds in their efforts to bring dishonour and abuse upon him. Nay, we are told that one of the centurions sent to Rome by Caesar, as he stood in front of the senate house and learned that the senate would not give Caesar an extension of his term of command, slapped the handle of his sword and said: "But this will give it.
He demanded, namely, that if he himself laid down his arms, Pompey should do the same, and that both, thus become private men, should find what favour they could with their fellow citizens; arguing that if they took away his forces from him, but confirmed Pompey in the possession of his, they would be accusing one of seeking a tyranny and making the other a tyrant.
Cicero the orator, too, who had just returned from Cilicia and was busy with a reconciliation, tried to mollify Pompey, who yielded everything else, but insisted on taking away Caesar's soldiers. For thus they had arrayed themselves in their fear and stolen out of Rome.
Here he held brief converse with those who had been invited to supper, and just as it was getting dark and went away, after addressing courteously most of his guests and bidding them await his return. Domitius, despairing of his enterprise, asked his physician, who was a slave, for a poison; and taking what was given him, drank it, intending to die. Then, since his forces were already numerous and formidable, he marched against Pompey himself. With these, therefore, he conferred in a gentle and affable manner, 65 inviting them even to send a deputation to Pompey proposing suitable terms of agreement.
The leaders, however, made their escape to Pompey. Even a sword gets tired out with smiting, and shield and breastplate are spared a little after so long a time of service. Surely the wintry season and the occasion of a storm at sea not even a god can constrain; yet this man takes risks as though he were not pursuing, but flying from, enemies. But when they got there and found that Caesar had put to sea, they quickly changed their tone and reviled themselves as traitors to the Imperator; they reviled their officers, too, for not having quickened their march.
He therefore ordered the sailors to come about in order to retrace his course. But since it was impossible, after taking much water and running great hazard at the mouth of the river, Caesar very reluctantly suffered the captain to put about. Pompey was well posted and drew ample supplies both from land and sea; while Caesar had no great abundance at first, and afterwards was actually hard pressed for want of provisions. For his soldiers were dejected, fearing the ferocity and hardiness of their enemies, who were like wild beasts in their eyes.
Caesar himself, too, narrowly escaped being killed. They could do it in a matter of moments by uttering consent, which led to marriages in the street, down the pub or even in bed. This meant it became rather hard to prove people were actually married, so in the 12th century it was declared a holy sacrament that must be observed by God. And it wasn't just the marriage that had to be observed. The consummation, especially among upper-class newlyweds, was far from private. It wasn't unusual for the bride to be carried to the bed by her family. The act of "bedding" was not regarded as an intimate moment, but rather an act of investment in the union, and one that warranted being observed by witnesses.
Some couples had their blushes spared by the luxury of a bed curtain, but this was not the case for everyone, and the observers would instead wait around the room for the act to be "completed. As mentioned, most upper-class medieval marriages were often loveless husks designed purely for financial and social gains. Therefore, in order to not throw themselves into the nearest bog, medieval nobles fulfilled their romantic desires in "courtly love.
Undertaken, not surprisingly, by members of the courts, courtly love allowed lords and ladies to practise the elements of love regardless of their marital status, explained Pamela Porter in her book "Courtly Love in Medieval Manuscripts. Sex, however, was strictly forbidden, and reserved for one's spouse only.
Courtly love was so popular, a list of rules was written up including: "Marriage is no real excuse for not loving. Couples in medieval Germany didn't waste time when it came to solving their disputes. Rather than just arguing like any normal couple, they took to the ring. Trial by single combat was a popular way to solve disagreements, and when man and wife were fighting there were bizarre restrictions, for example the husband must stand in a hole with a hand behind his back, while his wife ran around with a sack filled with rocks.
Related: 6 Scientific Tips for a Successful Marriage. While today many women spend money to accentuate their eyelashes, it was completely different in the Middle Ages, according to Margaret Schaus' book "Women and Gender in Medieval Europe an Encyclopedia," Routledge, Because the forehead was seen as the central point of their faces, women would remove their eyelashes and eyebrows in order to accentuate it. Some were so committed, they would pluck their hairlines to achieve a perfectly oval, bald face. People in the medieval times were very preoccupied with death, which is understandable if you consider how pious society was at the time and also the fact that many people were falling victim to the Black Death.
As a result, a trend known as "ars moriendi," or "The art of dying" came into fashion. The idea revolved around dying a good Christian death, according to the book by Austra Reinis called "Reforming the Art of Dying" Ashgate, The death should be planned and peaceful.
Just to add further stress when you're about to pop your clogs, the dying person should, like Christ , accept their fate without despair, disbelief, impatience, pride or avarice. Dying well was particularly popular with the priesthood, which led to many of the infamous medieval paintings of monks and holy men accepting their brutal murders with calm serenity. If you thought professional sports hooligans were a modern phenomenon, think again — medieval England had sports-related mob violence before the sports were even named, according to Montague Shearman's "Football History" Longmans, Green, and Co.
Each was more than feet long and capable of carrying an entire passenger train, including the locomotive, in four parallel lines on its decks. Most were much shorter, including a line called the Six Hundreds of neighbors in their nightclothes rushed to the scene, along with every available police officer.
A police officer was stationed at the church, but was taken by surprise and was unable to catch From the days of the old Barbary Coast — which The joint was Long stretches of Highway 1, one of the most scenic roads in the nation, are named after the Spanish explorer, as are schools, ships and streets, including one in San Francisco.
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The Spaniards stopped at a Bubonic plague is one of the most terrifying and lethal diseases in human history. Its most infamous outbreak took place in the 14th century, when the Black Death ravaged the entire world. In Europe, it's Ishi spent decades hiding out from white settlers' genocidal campaign against California Indians.
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Then he spent five years as an object of civilization's fascination with his vanished way of life. There have been many heroes in the annals of San Francisco, from the faculty wives who spearheaded the Save the Bay movement to the nurses and doctors on Ward 5B at San Francisco General Hospital who Few people know that in its earliest incarnation, it was the focus of a racist school segregation law that led to a diplomatic crisis so serious that President Theodore Roosevelt was forced to intervene.
The voyage across the Sea of The vigilantes who seized control of San Francisco in had more on their minds than exacting street justice - they wanted to change the city's entire corrupt political system. The Second Committee of Enraged at the big financiers whom he blamed for his ruin, he started a newspaper, the Evening Bulletin, that became the most ferociously outspoken daily in the city.
King was humorless and self-righteous, First they nearly missed the story altogether. Semple was a 6-foot-4, buckskin-clad dentist, doctor, printer and adventurer who had played a major role in the Bear Flag revolt two months earlier. The nabobs in their ludicrously ornate mansions atop Nob Hill were symbols of Gilded Age excess, while at the bottom of the hill murderous tongs ran riot in Chinatown and the Barbary Coast was a synonym for On a chilly evening in , an attractive year-old blond woman, her face and body obscured by a veil and a cloak, hurried through the decks of a San Francisco-bound ferry, looking for her prey.
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In , outraged residents of the Richmond and Sunset districts staged a public protest. What set off the good people of western San Francisco was not a tax increase, a zoning change or a political Hidden behind these names is a cornucopia of fascinating Seventy years ago, the largest armada in history delivered U. Just one ship among the 5, that took part in Who became the lover of the famous virtuoso pianist Franz Liszt? Who moved Starved for entertainment of any kind, yearning in equal parts for high culture and female flesh, early San Francisco's mostly male audiences devoured a rich and motley diet of Shakespeare, minstrel shows, On a sultry July afternoon in , as thousands of flag-waving San Franciscans clogged Market Street for a "Preparedness Day" parade to support war readiness, an explosion killed 10 people and set in Most of the women who arrived early on in the chaotic instant city were practitioners of the world's oldest profession, a fact commemorated in a famous bit of doggerel: The miners came in '49, the whores in Coffroth was a promoter who built his open-air arenas just across the city line - one of them made Colma famous for something besides dead people - and helped put boxing on the silver screen.
Before they left, they made Roberts promise not to say anything about their discovery until they could investigate further. The Comstock Lode in Nevada was pumping out For four years in the late 19th century, a lurid controversy racked the small Russian community of San Francisco - one that featured a pair of strong-willed antagonists hurling accusations of bigamy, arson, Today's Portals relates the rollicking tale of the first Cliff House - a clapboard structure built by real estate tycoon Charles Butler in Rough tripThat was the difficulty of the 6-mile ride from In the s and s, a certain well-spoken, finely groomed man was a regular fixture in respectable San Francisco society.
Unfailingly polite and with a droll sense of humor, the prosperous mine owner By offering a mass-transit connection to San Francisco - highlighted by a 16,foot-long pier that ran from the Oakland waterfront almost to Yerba Buena Island - the Key System played a major role in the Precocious and large for his age, he dropped out of college at 15 and ran away to join a "filibustering" expedition to Nicaragua led by a former San Francisco newspaper editor named William Walker.
The sport was mounted broadsword combat, and it did not comply with SPCA guidelines for the treatment of animals, NFL concussion protocols or any other safety regulations. Ross - a superb specimen who had Of all the mass entertainment ever put on in San Francisco, the most memorable may have been the Authors' Carnival of October - a kind of combination literary Academy Awards, tableau vivant, male and Perched on the sheer eastern face of Telegraph Hill, with a majestic view of the Bay Bridge, the Ferry Building and downtown, Calhoun Terrace is one of the most dramatic streets in San Francisco.
The most star-crossed and mythical of all San Francisco love affairs took place during the Spanish years, when the only structures were a handful of adobe huts in the Presidio and a cluster of buildings An East Coast shipping tycoon who had been elected on a platform of modern efficiency and "progress," Lapham had "all the sentiment of a Pismo clam," as Lucius Beebe and Charles Clegg wrote in the book A San Franciscan of the late 19th century could, with a few line changes, ride from the Ferry Building to the bottom of Diamond Heights, from the edge of the Presidio to 24th Street and Potrero, from San Francisco's real estate wars may be vicious now, but they're nothing compared to what went on along the waterfront during the Gold Rush.
Forget the Ellis Act and owner move-ins - in those days, Meiggs' Wharf soon became popular, both as a place for ships to berth and as a promenade and place of amusement for San Franciscans. The overextended Meiggs, who had built streets to reach his wharf and Many of the city's 1, or so African Americans - merchants, cooks, barbers, deckhands and laborers - headed down to the Market Street and Vallejo Street piers, where two steamers were ready to weigh In one of the odder tours of duty in U.
Stevenson, was sent in via Cape Horn to fight in the Mexican War, with the On Monday the 49ers will play their last regular season game at Candlestick Park, and sometime in the old stadium will be blown up. For the fans who watched Willie Mays patrol center field, the The Route's all-male ranks of regulars included respectable businessmen and politicians, as well as a miscellaneous crew of drink cadgers, skirt chasers and opportunistic gourmands known as "free-lunch On board the largest luxury liner built in the U.
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Two weeks ago, people around the world were touched when San Franciscans came together to make a dream come true for a little boy being treated for leukemia. But years before Batkid-mania, the city by Native remnants, including worked bone and stone objects and human remains, have been discovered on Yerba Buena's northeast corner. Bruce, 35, was a rising star in what Time magazine dubbed "sick comedy" - "social criticism liberally laced with cyanide," further distinguished by "a personal and highly disturbing hostility toward all the Today the Embarcadero is a lively promenade, filled with locals and tourists enjoying the bay vistas.
For the next year or two, he would labor under harsh conditions, eating bad food, protected by no laws More than 3, people were killed, 28, buildings destroyed and blocks leveled in the 4. South of For a few months in , visitors to San Francisco's Barbary Coast who wandered into a cellar nightclub called the Jupiter might have seen a slender, elegantly dressed piano player leading a piece The case entered the public eye via a short item in The Chronicle on April 10, The clean-cut young man acknowledged riding with Dumont, but said he had gotten off after a short ride and hadn't seen Many of the innumerable pieces in each eight-page issue of the Call - a typical front page might contain 80 stories - were dedicated to holding up to public contempt men who misbehaved toward women.
Soon after the last 49ers game, demolition crews will place charges throughout the stadium, someone will push a button and the great concrete bowl off Jamestown Avenue will implode, an arena that produced The underground water that feeds Mountain Lake is also the source of the city's lone remaining free-flowing stream, Lobos Creek, which meanders through a beautifully restored meadow and then past Sea Cliff There's nothing on the outside that helps passersby know how the old owner of Alabama, A.
Rizzoli, created one of the most remarkable alternate universes of the 20th century. Rizzoli made exquisite, Dogs roam happily all over the city, from the elegant George Sterling Park on Russian Hill, to the rugged cliffs of Fort Funston, to the lagoon at Crissy Field, to the endearingly irregular rectangle of All day long, joggers huff and puff up these steps, which feature a spectacular view of the Palace of Fine Arts and the bay. At the bottom of the steps, there is an odd indentation in the adjoining Treasure Island was built to celebrate the opening of the Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, both completed during the depth of the Depression, and to show the world that San Francisco was vibrant Despite its foot height, the Prayerbook Cross is unobtrusive, a quality that may have spared the city a lawsuit for violating the separation of church and state like the one that forced the sale of the A frantic dig In , workers building the foundation for the Pansini Building, on the south side of Pacific a few yards east of Columbus, found fossilized bones in dark clay soil, 15 feet below street In , a little book titled "Around the World in San Francisco" featured alphabetical entries on no less than 66 ethnic, racial and religious groups, including Estonian, Gypsy and "Negro.
For 20 years or so, a motley collection of old retired wooden horse cars and cable cars, whose owners had acquired them dirt-cheap and repurposed them into houses in all sorts of weird and wonderful ways, On the south side of Washington Street, just above Waverly Place and directly across from Ross Alley in the heart of Chinatown, stands a four-story brick building whose ground floor is now occupied by the The corner of Jackson and Montgomery falls within the Jackson Square Historic District, a remarkable oasis containing some of the only Gold Rush-era commercial buildings to survive the fire.
In the Mile Rocks today are marked by a squat, utilitarian tower that houses an automated light and serves as an emergency helicopter pad. In , the officials who headed the civilian organization that became The impersonality of this sprawling structure makes it hard to imagine that more than 50 years ago a small, rollicking gay club called the Tay-Bush Inn stood here - or that it was the site of one of the Down a little dead-end street, near an unexpected gated community and just beyond a forlorn picnic area, there's a small ravine.
Drawn by gold fever to San Francisco in , shrewd and ambitious, he Plans are afoot to raze the year-old Hugo Hotel next year and replace it with a nine-story apartment complex featuring 67 units of affordable housing. In the early 20th century, the South of Market From there he planned to row to Clark's Point, Barren, precipitous - their highest point is foot Tower Hill - haunted by great white sharks and uninhabited except for a handful of researchers, they are probably the most godforsaken piece of real The reason carefree patrons could order triple shots of Kessler at 3 a.
Poor and working-class people from the burned-out South of Market and Portals of the Past Every corner in San Francisco has an astonishing story to tell.
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Today's Stories. A freeway through the Sunset District? Roots of a San Francisco By Gary Kamiya Most of the vast freeway system that was planned for San Francisco in the s was stopped by a strange-bedfellows coalition of neighborhood activists, media figures, politicians and business people. Continue Reading. It was just like the movies — only this SF sniper was for real By Gary Kamiya Spurned by a woman, a disturbed man takes to a rooftop in San Francisco and opens fire.
San Francisco scenic treasure that locals overlook By Gary Kamiya The 49 Mile Scenic Drive has distinctive signs featuring a chummy-looking seagull and travels through neighborhoods predictable and less so. When a red-hunting Congress took on SF murals — and lost By Gary Kamiya The Rincon Annex murals by artist Anton Refregier, a sweeping, warts-and-all depiction of the history of San Francisco commissioned by a New Deal federal arts program, was attacked for years by right-wing How quake helped thousands of San Franciscans own their By Gary Kamiya Most eartthquake refugees who ended up in city-provided cottages were working San Franciscans.
Then a stage set By Gary Kamiya The pre district had a reputation for squalid conditions and sin. Iconic SF building was home to Bohemians for decades. SF whaling crews lived to regret it, if they lived By Gary Kamiya The previous Portals described how a young man named Walter Noble Burns, while eating breakfast in a San Francisco restaurant in the late 19th century, saw an advertisement in a newspaper for whaling crews The original Grizzly Adams kept his bears on a chain in SF By Gary Kamiya In , San Franciscans who paid a quarter to venture into a large basement room found themselves a few feet away from half a dozen grizzly bears.
How San Francisco evicted thousands of dead people By Gary Kamiya The last Portals described how, starting in , four cemeteries were installed in the then-desolate Lone Mountain area of the Inner Richmond District. SF bad guys get away in a car. How ships on dry land helped Gold Rush San Francisco grow By Gary Kamiya In the shadow of the Transamerica Pyramid, under a high-rise a few feet to the east of verdant little Redwood Park, are buried the remains of a wooden ship whose story captures the entire history of Gold The woman who fought Chinatown sex slavery for decades By Gary Kamiya Neither Chinese American leaders nor white officials in San Francisco made any real efforts to close the houses of prostitution that flourished in Chinatown in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
How early SF police delivered sex slaves to the brothels of By Gary Kamiya The previous Portals described how sex slavery was widely practiced in 19th century Chinatown. Shame of the city: When Chinese sex slaves were trafficked in SF By Gary Kamiya For more than five decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, sex slavery was openly practiced in San Francisco. How Argentine-led invaders chased defenders from a Monterey fort By Gary Kamiya One day in , a Spanish lookout in Monterey saw a pair of mysterious vessels approaching.
Fleeing repression, Jewish immigrants found success in Gold Rush By Gary Kamiya Of all the groups that arrived in Gold Rush San Francisco, the Jews who fled a legacy of oppression in Europe may have experienced the most remarkable success. How the Pony Express linked an isolated SF to the country By Gary Kamiya The Pony Express, the short-lived mail service whose daring young riders and tireless horses raced back and forth across 2, miles of a mostly unexplored continent, fired the imagination of the entire When bulls fought bears in brutal Mission District matches By Gary Kamiya Visitors file out of buses to tour the adobe church, while a couple of blocks away the queue for the Bi-Rite Creamery stretches around the corner.
How red-baiting crusade collapsed in SF courtroom in By Gary Kamiya The previous two Portals described how students protesting the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings in San Francisco in May were blasted with fire hoses, beaten and dragged down the stairs When S. Gold Rush S. For decades, sex trade thrived on S. Carnage collides with cheer at Christmas years ago By Gary Kamiya On Christmas Eve years ago, San Francisco was a happy and prosperous city, its streets thronged with shoppers and carolers and its big downtown retail stores doing record business at the end of the