This can help to deter individuals from acting corruptly via a pure logic of consequence and can discourage the temptation to rationalise corrupt acts. To induce positive behavioural change and avoid enhanced risk acceptance, careful consideration of how to frame information is needed. Finally, clear definitions of corruption should be communicated repeatedly and consistently within organisations to avoid ethical backsliding and grey areas that facilitate corruption, as well as rationalisations and justifications for corrupt behaviour.
One of the strongest findings from our review is that holding power seems to change cognitive processes in ways that make people more likely to behave unethically. Thus, practitioners can support the creation and implementation of integrity measures like codes of conduct, which can help to remind power-holders of their duty to act cleanly and create clear standards for ethical behaviour.
Accountability mechanisms are needed to hold power-holders to account for abuses of power, and to help prevent abuses from happening at all. This should include measures for preventing power-holders from using their position to accumulate material wealth for their own personal benefit. Prospect theory teaches us important lessons about when and why individuals are likely to engage in risky behaviours, like corruption. Anti-corruption campaigns that seek to punish wrongdoers can paradoxically heighten incentives to act corruptly if individuals perceive that such campaigns will potentially place them in a domain of loss.
This could heighten the likelihood of individuals acting corruptly to prevent further losses such as loss of position or access to resources. Instead, the success of punitive anti-corruption campaigns may hinge on the sequencing of reforms preparing elites for losses and allowing them time to cut their losses and on rewarding people for behaving ethically rather than only punishing unethical behaviour. Practitioners should pay careful attention to the timing and sequencing of anti-corruption measures directed towards society in general and anti-corruption measures directed towards political elites.
Research on basic cognitive psychology shows that there is a strong bi-directional relationship between cognition and behaviour, as well as a decisive interconnection between the individual and their environment. These dynamics imply that if not timed well, anti-corruption campaigns directed towards the society and campaigns directed towards political elites might cancel each other out. Society-wide and elite-focused anti-corruption campaigns are more likely to be successful if they are carried out in tandem rather than in isolation. Finally, decision-making processes within organisations should be as transparent and accountable as possible to reduce the temptation for power-holders to abuse their power.
If power-holders believe that they will not be held accountable for their actions, they are more likely to be risk-acceptant and act corruptly. Providing sufficient time for decision-making may also help to reduce the lure of cutting corners. The study of the psychological drivers of corruption is an emerging field, and as such, more research is required on several fronts.
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First, the existing evidence base about the cognitive psychology of corruption is generally quite thin, and more research is required to draw strong conclusions about how, which, and when particular cognitive psychological mechanisms make corruption more or less likely.
Second, the discussion in the previous section highlighted that individuals do not act in isolation; rather, their actions and cognitive psychology are shaped by the social world. More research should be conducted to better understand the social psychology of corruption, and how social and cognitive psychologies interplay. This should include a focus on the development of corruption norms and how they can be changed, as well as how group dynamics and interactions, social identity, trust, culture, and other dynamics influence individual propensity to act corruptly.
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More research on how social norming and nudging including anti-corruption messaging can help to change beliefs and preferences would be useful, as would a better understanding of the influence of context in heightening the importance of certain messages and nudging mechanisms. Finally, two additional avenues of research could provide fruitful insights into the psychology of corruption.
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Second, case studies of political elites would be useful, as elites hold high amounts of power and their actions affect many people. More research is required to better understand how political elites perceive the costs and benefits of acting corruptly, how and why they rationalise such behaviour, how they process information to reach decisions about acting corruptly including the role that analogies and heuristics play , how individuals learn from prior experiences, and how individuals factor time horizons into risk-acceptant behaviours.
Search Menu. Main points Individuals holding power are more likely to act corruptly. Individuals are more likely to act corruptly when they stand to gain personally, have lower self-control, perceive that corruption will only cause indirect harm, and when they work in organisations where unethical behaviour is not punished.
Uncertainty is likely to increase the likelihood of acting corruptly. Rationalisation narratives seem to make corruption more acceptable. Emotions such as guilt may make it less likely for individuals to act corruptly. To mitigate these cognitive influences, practitioners should support measures that improve information flows about the costs of corruption, that reward ethical behaviour and set basic integrity standards, and that improve organisational decision-making.
More research is required on how, which, and when particular cognitive psychological mechanisms make corruption more or less likely; the social psychology of corruption, and how social and cognitive psychologies interplay; the psychological effects of corruption on individuals; as well as case studies of political elites. Top Rational choice-inspired anti-corruption policy has failed Our approach The existing evidence base on the cognitive psychology of corruption Implications for practitioners Need for stronger conclusions through research Bottom.
Our approach To address this gap, we reviewed literature on the cognitive psychology of corruption to synthesise and evaluate current knowledge. The existing evidence base on the cognitive psychology of corruption Cognitive psychology tells us that to understand individual decision-making processes including decisions about acting corruptly we must look at factors that influence information processing such as time, mental capacity, and motivation.
Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications - John R. Anderson - Google книги
Summary of the existing evidence base and possible implications for practitioners Power: Individuals holding power are more likely to act corruptly 13 studies. Possible implications for practitioners: Support information and sanctioning mechanisms targeted at power holders to prevent and punish corrupt acts. Support integrity measures for power holders. Ensure transparent and accountable decision-making processes to check power. Provide clear definitions of corrupt actions to prevent ethical sliding. Personal gain and self-control: Individuals are more likely to act corruptly when they stand to gain personally, have lower self-control, perceive that corruption will only cause indirect harm, and when they work in organisations where unethical behaviour goes unpunished 6 studies.
Possible implications for practitioners: Support institutional mechanisms that limit the ability of power-holders to gain materially from their position. Support integrity measures for power holders, including reward systems. Loss aversion and risk acceptance: Individuals are likely to be more risk-acceptant to offset losses, and risk-averse to preserve gains.
Uncertainty is likely to increase the likelihood of acting corruptly 8 studies Possible implications for practitioners: Support information provision about the negative outcomes of corrupt behaviour to reduce uncertainty and mitigate risk-acceptant behaviour designed to offset potential losses. Pay attention to how information and situations are framed, and avoid negative framing. Rationalisation: Rationalisation narratives seem to make corruption more acceptable 4 studies. Possible implications for practitioners: Provide clear definitions of corrupt actions and enforce them to prevent rationalisations and normalisation.
Emotion: Emotions such as guilt may make it less likely for individuals to act corruptly 2 studies. Possible implications for practitioners: Support information provision about the negative outcomes of corrupt behaviour to encourage a sense of moral responsibility Power Power is fundamental to the study of corruption. This may be because power-holders tend to: be more risk acceptant seek rewards experience less guilt and embarrassment feel less empathy for others act more out of self-interest Wang and Sun ; see also Lee-Chai and Bargh Having power can result in overconfidence, greater risk acceptance, and a focus on rewards.
This book definitely covers all the basic topics that are currently relevant in cognitive psychology, and therefore it contains all the information that I expected from it. The layout of the book is really user friendly. There were plenty of pictures and diagrams to help explain the concepts that the author discussed. My love of optical illusions and other brain puzzles was one of the main reasons why I fell in love with the field of psychology. I fondly remember looking through my psych textbook to find all the puzzles and optical illusions, so I was extremely excited to see some of my favorite mind puzzles in the book.
The puzzles help to show the reader some of the strange traits of our brains, which help to bring to life many of the concepts that are written in the book. So all the pictures, puzzles, and optical illusions are fun to read, and they definitely constitute my favorite parts of the book.
As a clinician, this book is useful in helping to understand how the brain works, and may be useful to keep as a handy reference especially if you are working with a population where brain trauma may be likely. With that said, I have to give this book an average score.
It definitely had all the basics that I expected from a book on the subject; however it failed to offer little more. Although there was definitely some more theoretical thinking in this text than I remember in the textbooks I used for my cognitive psych class, there was still very little as far as any real philosophical thoughts by the author.
This book stuck with the major objective and experimental aspects of cognitive psych, which is what I would expect from a textbook for undergraduates. For graduate students this book would offer up little more than a review for those that are unable to remember what they had learned in their previous cog psych classes. Oct 19, Melinda Olivas rated it liked it. Anderson has a nice way of providing ample examples and illustrations to help the reader get a better grasp on the material he is presenting.
He discusses in detail additional cognitive functions including its part in attention, performance, knowledge based on perception and meaning, memory, and problem solving. He did a decent job in grabbing my attention by providing interesting examples and relevant experiments.
I especially found the chapter on attention interesting, as it reminded me of being a volunteer research subject as an undergraduate student and being tested on aspects such as automaticity ability to perform a task with little cognitive control, p.
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Reading this chapter was a nice reminder of cognitive processes that we do not necessarily pay attention to on a daily basis. Further, Anderson explains how some memories are more impressionable on an individual when they have meaning associated with them. In addition, Anderson explains how the brain can perceive false memories as true memories as evidenced by high activation in the hippocampus regardless of memory accuracy.
As a clinician, it is interesting to note these details as patients are constantly sharing events from their traumatic past. However, despite the possibility that some of the details may be inaccurate, a clinician must still honor their client and their perception of their history. The cognitive aspects on memory may prove even more useful for those interested in forensic psychology, where the accuracy of events are considered more imperative to a case. In summary, I found this text by Anderson to be interesting though time consuming.
Sep 07, Bertrand rated it really liked it Shelves: psycho. A nice book explaining how brain works. Provide a nice insight of thoughts and perception mechanisms. If you ever wondered why, for instance, you cannot read a text and listen to someone at the same time and still fully understanding both, this book is for you! I actually wanted to know more about human learning mechanisms and process. Nov 07, Tandraghose rated it liked it.
Biederman's recognition by component theory, the discussion of the case of the protangonist of Memento, etc. I would not choose this as a textbook for an upper division course.
Jun 21, Usman rated it really liked it. Very very very well written text with lucid prose and clearly explained useful examples. Recommended as a self contained text with upto date review of developments in cognitive psychology as well as cognitive science. Robert Kosara rated it really liked it Jul 31, Mark rated it really liked it Oct 13, Katelyn Goll rated it liked it Feb 01, Jun Gao rated it it was amazing Sep 24, Ken Fredette rated it really liked it Mar 22, Cadence rated it really liked it Nov 26, Harry Potter.
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Description John R. Anderson has been long been at the forefront of the study of cognition, with accomplishments that have informed the way cognitive psychology is investigated, applied, and taught. With this new edition of his classic textbook, Anderson again takes students to the forefront of the field, incorporating the latest theoretical breakthroughs, research findings, and technological advances, as well as marking the increasing role of neuroscience in the study of cognitive functions.
As always, Anderson makes his discussions of higher mental processes concrete and accessible with fascinating examples and clear explanations of the underlying research. The book can also be purchased with the breakthrough online resource, LaunchPad, which offers innovative media content, curated and organised for easy assignability.
LaunchPad's intuitive interface presents quizzing, flashcards, animations and much more to make learning actively engaging. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions x x Table of contents Preface.