With proper design, they have good overloading and field weakening characteristics. These devices feature high performance peripherals tailored for high speed, closed loop motor control. Motor control application notes on control algorithms include example software and source code.
The AC Induction motor is comprised of a simple cage-like rotor and a stator containing three windings. The changing field produced by the AC line current in the stator induces a current in the rotor which interacts with the field and causes the rotor to rotate. No brushes are necessary in this design. The base speed of the AC motor is determined by the number of poles built into the stator windings and the frequency of the AC input voltage.
Variable speed control of an AC motor can be accomplished by increasing or decreasing the input frequency. Consequently, the SS is required to provide necessary DC voltage level under different operating modes of the vehicle. When charging, switch S2 is activated and the converter works as a boost circuit; otherwise, when discharging, switch S1 is activated and the converter works as a buck circuit. When the voltage at the DC link is lower than the voltage reference, switch S1 is activated.
Alternatively, when the voltage at the DC link is higher than the voltage reference, switch S2 is activated. The FC-battery system response to transient variations is characterized by an inherent time constant , In such cases, capacitors along the DC vehicle can act as virtual inertia to supply the shortfall or absorb the surplus of energy [8, 10]. The DC-link power balance can be expressed by the following differential equation:. Neglecting the losses in the power converters, battery, filtering inductors and transformer and also the harmonics due to switching actions, the power balance of the integrated hybrid distributed generation system DGS with energy storage is governed by:.
The objective of the battery converter is to maintain constant voltage at the DC link, so the ripple in the capacitor voltage is much lower than the steady-state voltage [11, 12]. The state space representation of the induction motor with the stator currents and the rotor flux linkages components as state variables can be written as [13, 14]:. The electromagnetic torque and the rotor speed are given by:. DTC is a control philosophy exploiting the torque and flux producing capabilities of ac machines when fed by a voltage source inverter that does not require current regulator loops, still attaining similar performance to that obtained from a vector control drive.
In the d , q reference, the stator flux can be obtained by the following equation:. The electromagnetic torque is proportional to the vector product between the vector of stator and rotor flux according to the following expression .
In order to exploit the operation possible sequences of the inverter on two levels, the classical selection table of the DTC is summarized in table 1. It shows the commutation strategy suggested by Takahashi [14, 16], to control the stator flux and the electromagnetic torque of the induction motor. The neural network-based model can take various forms: it can be an artificial neural network ANN or a fuzzy neural network etc. It is believed that some of these solutions can give high accuracy and are relatively robust to parameter variations even at extremely low stator frequency.
The conventional PI speed controller was replaced by an Artificial Neural Network with the goal to get optimal performances for the closed loop control schema Figure 5. The output of ANN controller is applied to the entry of the process. After several tests, the architecture with two hidden layers was adopted [20, 22]. Numerical simulations have been carried out, on an EV propelled by a 38 kW induction motor drive which ratings are summarized in the appendix Table 2.
The objectives of the carried-out simulations are to assess the efficiency and dynamic performances of the proposed control strategy figure 7. At the beginning of the simulation process, different speed levels are applied to the control of the induction motor until it reaches its equilibrium state. Figure 9 shows the electromagnetic torque response and its zoom with PI and ANN, there are variations in the torque that corresponds to the variation of the reference speed at different times.
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- 2. Speed control methods of the various speed control motors.
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- Induction Motor Control Design.
Our order always intervenes to put the stable system. The results of the electric dynamics vehicle during starting and with change the acceleration pedal position and a varied road profile demonstrate that ANN based DTC reduces the current ripples and large torque compared with the DTC based PI controller.
Figures 10 and 11 shows the output current and voltage from the boost, these quantities ensure the power supply to the vehicle after the conversion of the DC bus through the inverter to supply the induction motor controlled by the ANNDTC. Figures 12, illustrate stator current of IM, oscillations appear at each period corresponding to changes in vehicle speeds.
3-phase Induction Motor (ACIM)
The Figure 13 shows the stator flux, at the beginning of the operation the amplitude of the flux vector increases. Then, the amplitude remains constant and equal to its reference value with a low ripple, thus revealing a correct regulation of the flux decoupled from that of the torque during the transient regimes.
The control strategy with the ANN let the dc bus voltage and the current always maintained constant with high performance compared with the PI controller. From these results, it can be said that the training system meets the shifting requirements at different levels. The performance of the speed motor electromagnetic torque behavior of the motor model using Neural Network Controller replacing both PI controller of Conventional DTC of IM have been evaluated and compared to use in electric vehicle drives.
In moist, humid, or wet environments, check for corroded terminals in the conduit box and repair when necessary. Listen for excessive noise or vibration, and feel for excessive heat. This could indicate lubrication of the bearings is needed. Note: Be cautious when lubricating the bearings as excessive lubrication may lead to dirt and oils clogging air flow. Be sure to locate and remove the source of heat for the motor to avoid system failure. The following information is intended as a general guideline for wiring of the Anaheim Automation AC Motor product line.
This can cause system faults. Use extreme caution when handling, wiring, testing, and adjusting during installation, set-up, tuning, and operation. Strictly comply with the following rules:. Maintain this separation throughout the wire run. Allow room on the sub-panel for wire bends. These cables are purchased separately, and are designed to minimize Electro-Magnetic Interference. These cables are recommended over customer-built cables to optimize system performance and to provide additional safety for the AC Motor system, as well as the user.
Once power is applied, connection terminals may have voltage present. The following information is intended as a general guideline for the installation and mounting of the AC Motor system. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting during installation, set-up, and operation. It is very important that the wiring of the AC Motor be taken into consideration upon installation and mounting.
Subpanels installed inside the enclosure for mounting system components, must be a flat, rigid surface that will be free from shock, vibration, moisture, oil, vapors, or dust. Remember that the AC Motor will produce heat during work; therefore, heat dissipation should be considered in designing the system layout.
Size the enclosure so as not to exceed the maximum ambient temperature rating. It is recommended that the AC Motor be mounted in position as to provide adequate airflow. The AC Motor should be mounted in a stable fashion, secured tightly. In order to comply with UL and CE requirements, the AC Motor system must be grounded in a grounded conducive enclosure offering protection as defined in standard EN IEC to IP55 such that they are not accessible to the operator or unskilled person.
As with any moving part in a system, the AC Motor should be kept out of the reach of the operator. To improve the bond between the power rail and the subpanel, construct your subpanel out of zinc-plated paint-free steel.
Additionally, it is strongly recommended that the AC Motor system be protected against electrical noise interferences. Noise from signal wires can cause mechanical vibration and malfunctions. The following environmental and safety considerations must be observed during all phases of operation, service and repair of an AC Motor system.
Failure to comply with these precautions violates safety standards of design, manufacture and intended use of the AC Motor. Please note that even a well-built AC Motor system operated and installed improperly, can be hazardous. Precaution must be observed by the user with respect to the load and operating environment.
Do not operate the AC Motor system in the presence of flammable gases, dust, oil, vapor or moisture. For outdoor use, the AC Motor must be protected from the elements by an adequate cover, while still providing adequate air flow and cooling. Due consideration should be given to the avoidance of liquids and vapors of any kind.
Contact the factory should your application require specific IP ratings. It is wise to install the AC Motor in an environment which is free from condensation, electrical noise, vibration and shock. Additionally, it is preferable to work with the AC Motor system in a non-static protective environment. No work should be performed while power is applied. Wait for at least 5 minutes before doing inspection work on the AC Motor system after turning power OFF, because even after the power is turned off, there will still be some electrical energy remaining in the capacitors of the internal circuit of the AC Motor system.
Plan the installation of the AC Motor in a system design that is free from debris, such as metal debris from cutting, drilling, tapping, and welding, or any other foreign material that could come in contact with system's circuitry.
Nikola Tesla stated that motors do not need brushes for the rotor to commutate. He said they could be induced by a rotating magnetic field. Nikola Tesla identified the use of alternating current which induced rotating magnetic fields. Tesla filed the U. This type of motor is what we call an AC Induction motor today.
Evolution of an AC Motor The AC Motor has made a name for itself by having a simple design, ease of use, rugged construction, and being cost-effective for many different applications. Advances in technology have allowed manufacturers to build on Telsa's idea and have allowed a great versatility in the speed control of the AC Induction Motor. From a simple phase control to more robust closed-loop systems that use vector oriented field controls; the AC Motor has advanced over the last one hundred and twenty years. There is a vast selection of accessories for the AC Motor.
The accessories available include a brake, clutch, fan, connector, and cables. See Anaheim Automation's Accessories page for more details and options. The AC Motor brakes are a 24vdc system. These brakes are ideal for any holding applications you may use with an AC Motor. The AC Motor brakes have a low voltage design for applications that are susceptible to weak battery, brown out, or long wiring. The AC Motor clutch is used to control the torque that is applied to the load. The AC Motor clutch can also be used to ramp up the speed of a high inertia load. Clutches are ideal to use with an AC motor when you want precise control over torque or to slowly apply the power.
AC Motor clutches also help prevent large current spikes. AC Motor fans are used to cool down the motors. They are not typically seen in small motors because they are not needed but more common with larger AC induction motors due to heat generation. There are two types of fans that are used for an AC Motor. The types are internal and external fans.
3-phase Induction Motors - AC Motor Control and Drives - STMicroelectronics
AC Motor fans are ideal to use when overheating is a concern. AC Motor cables can be custom made with the supplied AC motor connector to fit given specifications. Cables may also be purchased from Anaheim Automation. Anaheim Automation was established in as a manufacturer of "turnkey" motion control systems. Today, Anaheim Automation ranks high among the leading manufacturers and distributors of motion control products, a position enhanced by its excellent reputation for quality products at competitive prices. The AC Motor product line is no exception to the Company's goal. Anaheim Automation offers a variety of standard AC Motor products.
Occasionally, OEM customers with mid to large quantity requirements prefer to have a AC Motor that is custom or modified to meet their exact design requirements. Sometimes the customization is as simple as shaft modification, brake, oil seal for an IP65 rating, mounting dimensions, wire colors, or label. Discuss your application requirements with an Anaheim Automation Application Engineer for more details. Engineers appreciate that Anaheim Automation's AC Motor product line can answer their desire for creativity, flexibility and system efficiency.
Buyers appreciate the simplicity of the "one-stop shop," and the cost-savings of a custom AC Motor design, while engineers are pleased with Anaheim Automation's dedicated involvement in their specific system requirements. Anaheim Automation's standard AC Motor product line is a cost-effective solution, in that they are known for their rugged construction and excellent performance.
A considerable size of its sales growth has resulted from dedicated engineering, friendly customer service and professional application assistance, often surpassing the customer's expectations for fulfilling their custom requirements. While a good portion of Anaheim Automation's AC Motor sales involves special, custom, or private-labeling requirements, the company takes pride in its standard stock base located in Anaheim, California, USA. Contact the factory for details, should you require a custom AC Motor in your motion control system design.
All Sales, including a customized AC Motor, are made pursuant to Anaheim Automation's standard Terms and Conditions, and are in lieu of any other expressed or implied terms, including but not limited to any implied warranties. Anaheim Automation's customers for the AC Motor product line are diverse: companies operating or designing automated machinery or processes that involve food, cosmetics or medical packaging, labeling or tamper-evident requirements, assembly, conveyor, material handling, robotics, special filming and projection effects, medical diagnostics, inspection and security devices, pump flow control, metal fabrication CNC machinery , and equipment upgrades.
Many OEM customers request that we "private-label" the AC Motor, so that their customers stay loyal to them for servicing, replacements and repairs. AC Motor Quiz. Q: Which motor is typically applied to a Variable Frequency Drive? A: The stationary stator that is on the outside and has coils supplied with AC current, and the inside rotor that is attached to the output shaft. Therefore, a rotational magnetic field must be generated in order to run it. Capacitors create a power supply with the phase shift that is needed to create the required rotational magnetic field.
Three-phase motors on the other hand, always supply power with different phases, so they do not need capacitors. Q: What is meant by a reversible motor that is rated for 30 minutes? A: The motor is designed to optimally perform no more than 30 minutes. If ran continuously, the motor will burn out. Three-phase motors vibrate less, therefore extending their lifetime longer than single-phase motors of the same power, used under the same conditions.
Q: What is the difference between a variable frequency drive and a variable speed drive? VSD's on the other hand, vary voltage in order to control a DC motor. A: Yes, you can.