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In utilizing a gender analysis, feminist scholars increasingly focused on security broadly defined, leading to the emergence of feminist security studies FSS. Feminist security studies has become a vibrant field that produces innovative and timely research on issues of war, peace, security, conflict, and much more.

While feminist work in these fields has a long and rich history, feminist security studies as a distinct and established field of study is still expanding within international relations and security studies. Feminist security scholars encourage people to reconsider what it is that the current security politics are truly serving to secure. By focusing on human rights, such as food security or protection of reproductive and sexual rights, feminists turn the traditional paradigm of security politics into a politics serving citizens rather than governments, corporations, or politicians.

Keywords: feminist security studies , feminism , international relations , security studies , masculinist bias , security politics , sexual rights , human rights. Access to the complete content on Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. If you are a student or academic complete our librarian recommendation form to recommend the Oxford Research Encyclopedias to your librarians for an institutional free trial.

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In assessing the vulnerabilities present within ComSat constituent components, as well as means to mitigate the risks associated with those vulnerabilities, the paper identifies apparent tacit or even active state actor support directed at exploiting US ComSat vulnerabilities. This paper concludes that efforts to reduce ComSat risks, especially those emanating from state and non-state threat actors, requires an adaptation in both critical infrastructure and space policies to account for the convergence that has resulted from ComSat usage within the federal government, and recommends that US Cyber Command be included a key coordinating entity as those policies are updated.

The rapid increase in the use of technologies dependent on the Internet has brought to the fore the security threats stemming from cyberspace. The argument that cyber threats are overestimated and viewed as a larger threat than they really are is also a point that is debated, as the constantly evolving security and threat perceptions are shaped by the changes in cyberspace.

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According to the proponents of this argument, cyber threats are not as severe as they are presented, despite the large budgets states assign to cyber security, cyber armies they set up or the news in the media. The most significant argument of those who assert that cyber threats are exaggerated is that known cyber-attacks have never physically harmed anyone so far. On the other hand, the idea that the world should be ready for cyber wars is voiced over and over again, specifically by state authorities.

This article explores the efficiency of the use of cyber power diplomatically in the events that have taken place thus far and compares cyber weapons and nuclear weapons by analyzing the debates on cyber security and cyber warfare definitions. The article, as a result, views cyber security studies as an essential element of national security. Much of the social, economic and political activities in the region of South-East-Europe SEE take place via so-called cyberspace. Even though there is evidence of growing dependence of cyberspace in SEE countries the practice shows that there is no parallel match to security.

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Giving that no one is safe in the cyberspace the main argument of this article is that in order to provide effective defense from malicious and aggressive actors against their own citizens, the SEE countries should focus on building cyber resilient societies. In doing so, they need to concentrate on building an effective strategy, adjust the law and develop appropriate doctrine. Nevertheless, Active Cyber Defense has long been employed by States facing increasingly sophisticated cyber incidents in combination with Passive Cyber Defense.

Some of the Active Cyber Defense measures taken against another State in self-defense fall within the category of international law governing the use of force, and therefore should be dealt with using the tenets provided by that branch of law. The main assertion of this essay is that ethical and legal issues surrounding some Active Cyber Defense measures can effectively be handled through the legal framework provided by the Caroline formulation of the preemptive doctrine.

Privacy concerns in internet communications are increasing steadily among citizens who reside in both repressive regimes and other developed countries, due to the technical network interception possibilities which threat personal rights and freedom. Moreover, identifying personal identity and other private data of internet users can be easily categorized as an emerging risk which may hinder freedom of speech and other democratic rights.

Due to privacy concerns and other factors mentioned above, usage of anonymity technologies on the Internet is growing. In this research, we take a closer look at the anonymization technologies, from a risk analysis perspective in terms of success rate to circumvent internet censorship efforts. Furthermore, we investigate what is the current status of Internet censorship in wide variety of nations, taking into account the couple of recent reports published by reputable sources.

International commerce is dependent on sea lines of communication. The ability for a nation to operate a system of international commerce unimpeded is vital to its security. Every year more than 6 million containers, carrying more than million tons of hazardous cargo and 1 billion-plus tons of petroleum products depart American ports.


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The shutdown of one or two ports could potentially cause more damage to the U. Maritime assets such as offshore production platforms, deep seabed mining operations, and liquefied petroleum tankers are attractive targets to a terrorist organization or a state actor seeking to strike a strategic U.

International Security vol.4: Debating Security and Strategy and the Impact of 9-1 1

With an ever - increasing reliance on networked technologies to manage this infrastructure, a federal framework to manage the cyber risks posed to maritime assets should be adopted. Ease of use, simple and modular structure, along with cost efficiency have accelerated the deployment of AIS equipment and enlarged the network of these systems.

AIS-based maritime safety systems are subject to cyber attacks, and the impact of these attacks may be strategic. This paper categorizes the errors occurred during the evolution of the AIS-based maritime system and provides an ecosystem of cyber-physical spaces to provide potential solutions to the errors. Cyber security is a great challenge for organizations. Big Data and Machine Learning can be used to improve cyber security protection mechanisms for organizations. In the first application, we present how to use LDA to discover users' possible hidden intentions from a collection of the user's operations extracted from a very large volume of security monitoring data.

This new application can help intrusion detection and malicious activities conducted by insiders. In the second application, we present an architecture used for identifying and redacting sensitive information from outgoing emails in an organization, which may help an enterprise or organization to protect their sensitive information from both intended or unintended leak. Cyber security exercises became an important tool for the information security domain for various reasons.

Raising awareness, improving readiness to cyber-attacks, and testing capabilities of experts before a real incident are some. However, measuring the success of exercises and the participants participating in the game is a vague area, which no scientifically elaborated approach has been followed, according to the current literature. In this research, some of the well-known cyber security exercises are compared and contrasted by evaluation metrics they use and scoring systems they have implemented to their game.

Other than capture the flag type events, which collecting points depend on how many challenges participants solve, this paper elaborates on red team vs. The ultimate goal is to observe strengths and weaknesses of their approach and identify which metrics are commonly used. According to the findings, after a detailed comparison of these exercises, it was realized that current evaluation techniques in cyber security exercises mostly focus on metrics representing the defensive and offensive success of participants.

Keeping the systems up and running, successfully defending systems, or attacking other players are some of the key elements. Furthermore, it was realized that exercises provide a useful way to raise awareness, improve technical competence, and enhance the readiness of cyber security experts in the field.

Thus, it is important to extract meaningful outcomes from those exercises, such as understanding which participant has enough capacity to deal with eminent cyber security attacks. There are a number of exercises that aim to achieve this goal; however, it is not clearly described how to evaluate the success metrics. Other than that, evaluating players with a solid, reusable, and meaningful approach is still missing.

Non-technical, but important, issues like reporting and media relations lack in many of them. It was seen after this research that it should not be just about who comes first in these cyber security exercises; rather, it should tell who is ready for the real combat. Guest Access.

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Register Log in. As a guest user you are not logged in or recognized by your IP address. Ebook: Strategic Cyber Defense loading Description With the increased dependence on digital and internet technologies, cyber security has come to be regarded as a national security issue, and the number of countries with a published cyber security strategy continues to rise.

Order hardcopy. Front Matter. Preface As the world becomes more digitalized and dependent on internet technologies, cyber security has increasingly been regarded as a national security issue. In this book, highlights from the discussions in the ARW are shared in 15 chapters under three sections which are: — Critical Infrastructure Protection and Situational Awareness — Policy and Legal Aspects of Cyber Warfare and Security — Emerging Issues in Cyber Security: Maritime Cyber Security, Big Data and Exercises The invaluable knowledge presented in the book contributes to readers' cyber security understanding and stimulates them to deliberate more on creating well-tailored and efficient cyber security strategies.

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IOS Press Ebooks - Strategic Cyber Defense - A Multidisciplinary Perspective

Critical Infrastructure Protection and Situational Awareness. Abstract Our Critical Infrastructure CI systems are, by definition, critical to the safe and proper functioning of society. Abstract Although a huge number of problems have not been exactly solved yet, technical and organizational aspects of cyber security have been widely addressed by the security community.

Cyberspace Situational Awareness Framework. Abstract A command and control C2 structure is maintained by situation awareness, which in turn is reliant on information sharing. Abstract In this paper, the details of critical infrastructure protection program of the United States of America are shared by taking the cyber resilience into account.