Summarizing and placing this concept into process, organizational knowledge starts at the individual level with thoughts or understanding internalization. It moves upwards through socialization, where individuals dialogue with team. The ideas are articulated externalization and become more widespread through diffusion of explicit knowledge combination. As knowledge moves up the spiral knowledge is more widely spread and the spiral gets wider.
In another hand, it happens when individuals access organizational knowledge, they apply it and internalize new knowledge, thus setting the stage for an enhanced piece of knowledge to work its up the spiral. In order to approach small design firms about Knowledge Management KM based on the Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation, the organizational process needs to be clarified. According to Bolisani, Scarso and Zieba KM is often considered to be a systematic and organized efforts to find, organize and make company's intellectual capital available.
This chapter approaches literature available about process and organizational structure and information flow related to Brazilian design firms. Although KM have become the focus of extensive investigation, not many studies applied to Brazilian design firms. Many studies breaks project into operations: inputs information , process, and outputs qualified information. It presents below scheme of organizational process and definition of each step:.
Figure 2. Organization Process in design firms.
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Source: adapted from Jobim Outputs are the direct immediate term results associated with a project. Projects will produce two kinds of outputs. One kind are the intangible things the project intends to produce: e. The other kinds of outputs are tangible plans, measurements, tracking processes and status reports that pertain to planning, managing and closing the project itself. The essential technique for using Critical Path Method is to construct a model of the project that includes: a list of all activities required to complete the project, prioritize activities for the effective management and to shorten the planned critical path of a project.
Critical path is the sequence of activities that add up to the longest overall duration. It is the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date there is no float on the critical path. A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path.
After it defined the information tack, here it is presented the main communication practices. According the author storing the information that are captured or shared through: forms, books, manuals and blueprints writing information ; digital files, e-mails digital information. She divided in formal and informal communication. The formal communication uses structured processes following standards. Sousa mentioned that, although informal communication are less emphasized in project management processes often contribute decisively to the success of the process.
In most organizations, the bulk of information is likely to be in relatively unstructured formats. These can be in the form of typical business or office documents such as reports, memos, spreadsheets or emails. These documents normally contain valuable information but they are not easily searched and found. For a Knowledge Management system to be effective, it must provide for search engines that can deal with such unstructured information.
Information packages are the basic units that are transferred between design project team members. It may be textual a label or dimension on a drawing, a clauses in a specification or graphic a line, arc or hatching in a drawing. An information package therefore represents a set of information items. Objects are defined as having form, function and behavior, such as ceilings, windows, pipes, walls, beams, etc.
The value of an information attribute may be displayed in any number of information packages. Tribelsky and Sacks b provide a set of measures and indexes designed to assist in quantifying information flow during the design process. Data collection are based on information transactions registered in the journal logs of the project intranet software and on the outcomes of the process analyses.
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Controlling data without software is unfeasible, and do it by using software is not common because a low number of companies use it. Souza and Amorim developed a research about using of BIM in Brazilian architectural offices, total thirteen offices was selected and they considered a representative sample of the total offices that uses this technology in Brazil. The barriers for adopting: time for implementation, cost of software and investments in hardware to support the software, training.
Cost as an issue, not just in Brazil, according to Ogbeide as always the financial aspect is an obstacle when it comes to new innovations, BIM tools are not different in this sense. Permonian and Marques Neto and Stehling observed that Auto Cad Software is used in all offices in their studies. Most companies use the BIM only for 3D project view. Stehling observed that the BIM concept is associated with the simple use of software, excluding its use for the project management process.
There is a study showing correlation between characteristics of information flow including design team members and the degree of success achieved in the detailed design phase of civil engineering projects. The information flows were characterized in terms of measures drawn from the concepts of lean thinking, such as flow bottlenecks, rework, large batches and cycle time, which were monitored and computed analytically using a set of information flow indices. The degree of success was measured in terms of the effectiveness of the design documents that were produced, the projects' success or failure in meeting targets of budget, schedule and client expectations, and supplemented by subjective assessments collected in interviews with key personnel from all the projects.
The results show a direct empirical relationship between the objective measures of information flow and the measures of the effectiveness of design documents. Stable information flow with lower occurrence of flow interruption phenomena correlated reasonably well with higher quality design documents. Therefore, it is concluded from Tribelsky and Sacks study based on the Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation that the project's success level is positively related to documentation created by it, thus as more like Internalization, more successful will be the project.
Firms have been looking for Internalization, proving it, according to Tribelsky and Sacks a , it is growing number of engaged offices in quality programs, that requires structured process with documentation, however it is increasing the number of research showing that there are few offices successfully apply the quality program methodology. Most offices have non-systematic process management; the lack of participation of engineers in the design stage; the lack of evaluation of designers. Inefficient flows of information result in reworking follows wherever design has proceeded on basis of outdated versions of other designers' drawings because newer information was not forthcoming and overall project durations are extended and increasing costs.
Unfortunately, the flow of information in dispersed design teams is not well understood, therefore it is frequently not managed well. There is consensus that the communications management has the main problems of project management of Engineering and Architecture design firms. Most offices do not have any knowledge of the techniques and good project management practices. Scherer, L. According to Lopes et al lack communication and inadequate registration information or even total absence are common practices in design firms. There are documents with recorded information; generally, required files by customer and additional designers.
In addition, authors affirm that the information flow in their case study reflects the usual company process in most Architecture Firms in Brazil. Model is widely based on the professional experience. Therefore, even Internalization process presents best result; Combination describes the most dynamic process in design firms. In order to applied knowledge management on small design office of Civil Engineering as case study. This office develops just one complementary modality of design. The methodology is based on theory presented in this paper.
Observing Jobim scheme of organizational process, looked for adapting for study case company in order to identify the trajectory information to knowledge. Firstly, verify the types of communication practices on office case study routine base on Muszynska Later, considering Sousa , communication was divided in formal or informal. After created an organization process scheme Figure 2 , the following communication practices has been identified, the most used to least used: phone calls, e-mail, face-to-face communication, database and instant messaging.
Instant messaging is still less often, but it has been increased during last two years. In order to compare, six in ten clients send instant messaging in ; one in ten clients send instant messaging in Table below presents evaluation procedures of case study office as Formal and Informal. Therefore, looking for clarifying if the procedure is formal or informal, it was defined as informal procedure: unformatted note, subjective and verbal. Formatted document as formal. Table 1.
Classification of Information flow about company's procedures. Client demand.
Client informal. Unformatted note informal. Contract formal. Data collection. Blueprint and additional documents formal. Blueprint formal.
Knowledge Management and Management Learning:
Based on presented studies, theory of Knowledge Management and a Civil Engineering small design firm as case study. It is developed Flowchart of Information Flows in design process with identification of dynamic process. The process starts with first contact with client by phone for scheduling a meeting. It is a short meeting. This step is classified of Socialization, involving just tacit knoledge and just tacit knoledge, in the both sides. If the demand is interesting for the office the next step is collecting all needed information for preparing a budget. If the office is not interested in development the project, the demand is rejected.
Construction projects involving diferent modalities of designs. This office develops just one modality of design, when it is offered a demand out of office scope, the office indicates others professionals. Defining if the demand is in the scope or not is of articulating explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge, therefore it is an Internalization. Documents as a contract is created during this process. The following steps, it was approached above Planning, Inputs, Development Project, next step is Outputs.
It's true that creativity, just as learning, is an attribute and a construction of the individual, but it gives its best fruits when it is developed in a specific group.
Introduction to knowledge management
Another way to categorize creativity techniques is by the orientation of thinking: divergent or convergent. Divergent thinking aims at the free flow of ideas and requires discipline. Convergent thinking has the the function of idea filtering, to identify which ideas really have an innovative value and can be integrated in a real solution. Both ways are complementary. Generally, these activities are all considered under the brainstorming concept.
It's a must for all creativity techniques:. Invent the ideal solution, from imagination. And how can we implement the ideal solution? Relate things or concepts that were not related before. Generate multiple solutions to a problem. Though an idea may seem absurd or impossible, it might show edges from which an idea with more chances of success can be constructed. Some observations to stimulate creativity in an organization:.
Trust the group, do it for pleasure, for amusement. Each member of the group is independent in the production of ideas. Support the participation of staff in decision making, and their contributions at brainstorming. What can these creative efforts offer? Creativity is and has always been the problem solving resource, to facilitate adaptation to change, to optimize the operation of organizations and to improve the attitude of staff.
Creativity techniques can be used in any functional area of a company: strategic planning, business strategy, product development, service optimization, functional strategy, finance, human resources, marketing, information management, quality management, that can be encompassed in four categories of creativity identified for organizations: 1 Client oriented ; 2 Products ; 3 Processes ; 4 Strategic.
The impact of knowledge management on innovation | Emerald Insight
Every kind of innovation is important. Strategic innovation might not come necessarily from the the top management, but visionary managers are indispensable to implement strategic innovation across the company. Many top managers might discover that: 1 Many of their employees at every level have ideas about every aspect of the organization; that many of these ideas are well meditated; 3 that many of these ideas have an economic value for the organization. The activity that expects from from creative processes is Research and Development.
Innovation with new products a process ideas. Continuous improvement of products and services. The organization of group creative efforts can benefit from the participation of an external consultant though it is not a requirement. These experts in creative techniques can be useful for staff training in creativity techniques. Their work is presenting the different techniques, the way they must be used, their rules and perspectives of creativity work.
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It may be useful to train the intermediate levels of the company to stimulate creativity in staff, to motivate them and to facilitate a working environment based on these techniques. In other organizations, government or private, dedicated to process, product or service innovation. In personal creativity as a support for researchers, product or service developers and in very small companies. The application of creativity techniques is continuous process. Some of these techniques:. Check lists Osborn; Product innovation, etc.
KM can also be used as a decision support system and specially in the brainstorming phase:. Get attention and engagement from interested people. Analyze all ideas with maximum detail. Relate also internal with external factors. Therefore, the role of a knowledge management system is not only to focus on some complementary resources of Human Resources, but also to contribute to the creation of the business context, that facilitates all business intelligence processes.
All of these techniques are based on the principle of concept or idea processing. Handling ideas in text or tables, or in exclusively graphical devices is very difficult and unproductive. KM semantic networks or concept maps are the natural environment for knowledge management, its methods and strategies are the essence of business intelligence.
Innovation Creativity is at the base of innovation , both are complementary activities. There are methodologies to stimulate creative solutions We are all creative even if our creativity was more evident in our childhood; the "mystery" of how and why our creativity stopped manifesting sometime in our infancy still remains. It's a must for all creativity techniques: Avoid evaluations.
Create analogies and metaphors. Some observations to stimulate creativity in an organization: Trust the group, do it for pleasure, for amusement. Maintain communication. Use external sources of information. Experiment with new ideas. High performance. Some of these techniques: Brainstorming.
Story board. Lotus flower.