Mi reloj no es de oro. These shoes are from Italy. My watch i s not made of gold. Cuatro por tres son doce. Four times three i s twelve. Las playas son admiradas por los turistas. The beaches are admired by the tourists. The book will be published in San Juan. Note that in the passive voice construction with ser, the past participle of the verb functions as an adjective and must agree in gender and number with the subject.
La luna es un planeta. Cuatro por cinco son veinte. Buenos Aires es la capital de Ecuador. Una hora es una medida de tiempo. It is urgent to call your house now! This is Manuel Ortiz. He is from Puerto Rico. This is his assistant, Leticia. She is Ecuadorian. They are our friends. Manuel is an excellent athlete. Busca la respuesta para cada pregunta. Escribe la letra que corresponde. Es muy joven. Son de Inglaterra. Es la una y cuarto. Es el ocho de enero a las ocho. Es Shakira. Es en el Parque Central. When Is Estar Used in Spanish?
You learned that estar is used mainly to indicate location and temporary situations or conditions. Estoy en la sala ahora. The city of Miami i s in Florida. I a m in the living room now. I w i l l b e outside in two minutes. She i s lost. The children are ill. Ser and Estar 31 Remember that temporary conditions are not characteristics.
The condition described with estar could also indicate the result of a previous action. The session is cancelled. I am not crazy!
You are depressed! Estar emphasizes a short-term condition or a basis for a comparison with a previous state or condition. Listen, you are you look thin. For their age, these kids are very mature. Luisa is an engineer but now she is a server at a fancy restaurant. Estamos buscando trabajo. The dancers are coming out to the stage. Pancho lee el mensaje de Berta. Lee las oraciones. De acuerdo al contexto, escribe la forma apropiada de ser o estar.
Ahora las ocho y media. Nosotras descansando y tomando el sol porque 4. Vuelva al ejercicio 3- 4. He and his family are from the United States, and his ancestors are from Europe. He is very honest but he is brutally frank. His children are not like Arturo. They are very happy because they believe their father is the future governor of the state.
That event is not until next year. It is important that they understand reality. They must be prepared for defeat. The ideas they convey are different, as you can see in the following examples. Keep in mind that your choice of ser or estar will strongly affect your message. Subraya Underline la respuesta correcta. Arturo quiere bailar.
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Yo necesito saber la respuesta. Voy a comprar estos quesos. Ella siempre ayuda a sus amigos. We are ready! The roaches are dead. This novel is very boring. Jules is from Israel and his wife is American. My eyes are green. Today is March 9. Expressions with Estar Estar appears in common expressions used in everyday communication in Spanish. Note the English equivalents of the examples.
It is May 4. I am about to leave. I am in favor of cutting taxes. Do you agree with our decision? Escoge la letra necesaria para traducir la frase. We are all for peace. They are on vacation. The boss is back. Go back to ejercicio 3- 9. Translate the numbered sentences into Spanish using the expressions you selected. The context words surrounding the conjugated verb will give you the cues necessary to identify and use the appropriate tense.
The present tense is appropriate in these examples. Siempre viajamos a California los veranos. W e arrive at noon every day. W e always travel to California in the summer. Ayer llegamos a la una y media. Yesterday we arrived at one thirty. Last year we traveled to Venezuela. These expressions of time provide context and help determine when the actions take or took place. Los hombres 2. Marcelo y yo 6. Marta y Melisa 7. Marta 8. When Is the Preterit Used in Spanish?
Verb endings in Spanish indicate which noun or pronoun is doing the action. In addition, they provide details about the time and the circumstances under which the action takes place. As you describe experiences, events, or situations in the past, remember that different past tenses communicate different ideas.
You have already seen some examples of uses of the preterit and expressions of time used with this tense. Ellos viajaron el mes pasado. They traveled last month. Key time expressions help us establish the meaning of each sentence. El mes pasado and a las cuatro point out the time the actions took place and signal the use of the preterit.
Sometimes these signals or expressions may not be stated literally. The night before last, Ana returned home. This morning, Pilar sent three e-mails to the bank. Roberto traveled to San Antonio last month. Ten years ago I moved to this building. Detective Rojas and his assistant solved resolver the case last week. If you can determine for how long the action took place, use the preterit. She waited two hours at Dr. The twins graduated a few years ago.
She died at ninety years of age. Mi amigo y yo The Preterit Tense 39 2. Por la tarde. Por la noche. Verbs with Spelling Changes in the Preterit Some verbs have spelling changes in the preterit tense. Technically, they are not irregular verbs, but the changes are required by Spanish spelling rules to preserve the hard sound of the consonants g and c with -que and -gue. Busca el verbo que tiene sentido.
Read and study the following lists. He fell. Alicia read the magazine. She heard my song! My aunt distributed the money. She believed a lie. The ceremony concluded on time. My friends built a house. Did she read the book? Escribe en el pasado. Change the verb in italics to the preterit tense. La carta contribuye a resolver un caso muy complicado.
Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterit As in the present tense, there is a pattern of stem changes in the Spanish preterit. The changes in the preterit for -ir verbs are as follows: e changes to i and o changes to u, only in the third-person singular and plural forms. Ayer, Pedro al restaurante. Elsa y Roberto seguir hablando de sus planes para el verano. De postre, Roberto 9. Al poco rato, el camarero ejercicio salir de casa para ir conseguir su postre favorito, arroz con leche.
She got dressed and arrived at the movies at P. She bought a ticket and ordered pedir a soda. A young girl served her the drink and smiled. In the theater, she sat and watched the commercials. So many commercials! She paid to see a movie, not boring commercials! Marisa slept for one hour. She woke up twenty minutes before the end of the movie. Irregular Verbs in the Preterit Many common verbs have irregular forms in the Spanish preterit. These verbs have irregular stems and are easy to group according to their patterns of stem changes and endings. Instead of the regular preterit verb endings they have a distinctive set of endings.
Note that they are without accent marks: -e, -iste, -o, -imos, -isteis, -ieron. Study the following patterns of irregular verbs. Alberto could not. Last night Rita put the keys on the table. Yesterday there was a meeting. They were here. I put the fork in the drawer gaveta. We had to go to the store. Were you Uds.
My friends had an accident. I did not tell a lie. She brought a cake. They translated the exercises. We did the work. Tim did the homework. Did they come? These compounds follow the conjugation patterns of the basic verbs. The context the words surrounding the verb will help you guess their meaning. Ellos no fueron a la playa el domingo. Ellos fueron los campeones del torneo de golf. They did not go to the beach on Sunday.
They w e re the champions of the golf tournament. In the second example, fueron, a preterit form of ser, links the pronoun ellos and the noun campeones. For better understanding, always try to read or listen to the entire sentence or meaningful group of words. El lunes, Ana hacer todo su trabajo. La Srta. Simpson traer unos paquetes para las secretarias. La secretaria le 4. Paula y yo dar un informe a su jefe. Ana y yo 9. El viernes yo no Mi jefe producir buenos resultados.
The Preterit Tense 47 Verbs with a Special Meaning in the Preterit Some verbs change their basic meaning when conjugated in the preterit. I met the school principal yesterday. He found out the truth. I refused to leave on time. Marta tried to help me. The interpreter translated the exercises in this book.
Yesterday I gave my key to your sister. We went to the park on Sunday. The two brothers were here last night. Did you Ud. I did not have an accident last week! We met Ambrosio a month ago. John Glenn fue el primer hombre en llegar a la luna. Comenzamos a usar la Internet activamente en Bookstores are not just places to buy books. Bookstores are comfortable places to spend time away from home. You can read a magazine, listen to your favorite music CD, or have a snack.
Last week, I stopped by my favorite bookstore. I saw a big sign with the title The Black Spot, a new mystery novel. I read a few pages and decided to have a cup of decaffeinated coffee. I went back to my chair and drank my coffee slowly. When I decided to leave, I noticed a coffee stain on my new tie.
I got up, went to the cash register, paid for the novel with my credit card, and went out. We may consider this an indeterminate duration. I used to have a dog. My dog Sultan and I played almost every day. De vez en cuando ellos dos 5. Por lo general Ignacio una vuelta por el pueblo. Mis amigos y yo ejercicio dormir vestirse para dar salir juntos a veces. Escribe la forma correspondiente del imperfecto. Lee las oraciones y decide. Usa la forma apropiada del imperfecto de ir, ver o ser, de acuerdo al mensaje de la frase.
El cantante principal 2. El guitarrista 3. Todos en el grupo 4. Nosotros 6. Carlos y Ana 7. Julia y Pepe 8. The imperfect is one of the tenses used to narrate past actions. The imperfect tense describes the ongoing duration of an action or how frequently the action took place. Elsa had many friends and few worries.
It does not tell us exactly when or for how long Elsa was in these circumstances. When Carlos lived in New York, he used to go to the theater frequently. Escribe la forma apropiada del imperfecto. Alisha 2. Sergio y su hermano 3. Nosotros no 4. Sus hijos 5. Mis padres ya 6. Yo salir de compras. He was a very honest politician. In this example, era underscores the ongoing nature of the characteristic. Marta era extremadamente cuidadosa. Marta w a s extremely careful.
I used to would spend many hours there. Note that this use of would does not imply the conditional mood in English. There is no condition to be met. Compare the following examples and observe the context. She would buy the car but she does not have the money. She would buy used to buy a new dress every month on payday. The sentence includes an expression of time, todos los meses, indicating a repeated action and showing its habitual nature compraba. Ana would buy chocolates. I used to write postcards. She used to swim. They used to go to the library.
You learned some of these expressions in ejercicio The list that follows contains several more. Try to use these expressions when you use the imperfect to communicate repeated actions in the past. Usa el imperfecto. Every day she would rest after lunch. Almost always they put sugar in their coffee. At times you Ud. From time to time Sheila stayed at home. Generally the train arrived late in the morning. Many times I would miss the bus.
My mother would hardly ever sleep. The actress w a s thirty years old. It was a beautiful, cool day. Eran las cuatro de la tarde. It was four in the afternoon. Traduce las experiencias de Lucinda. Note that many of the statements express a customary or repeated action during the time she spent in the city.
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We have known each other since we were in kindergarten. Every morning I went to my English class. Usually my class would end at noon. The weather was beautiful in spring. I liked New York. My friends and I lived near Chinatown. They worked for a Chilean company. I would often help with the household chores. Go back to your answers to the previous exercise ejercicio 5 - 7.
For each statement, write down any key Spanish expression that signals a customary or repeated action. If no expression of time appears in a given statement, leave a blank. Mental states are considered ongoing conditions. Me gustaba caminar por las calles. He thought about me. W e have known each other since we were I used to like walking down the streets. Ella trabajaba y yo descansaba. She was working and I was resting.
The thief was leaving while we were going into the room. Siempre estar pensar salir sentir en ti. Yo no mentiras lies. Sus amigos mucho dolor. It was raining and all of a sudden the sun came out. In the previous example note the description in the past. Robin querer comprar un ordenador nuevo. La venta especial ser fenomenal. Cuando llegamos, los vendedores ejercicio ayudar a muchos clientes. Mientras 8. Frank was a methodical man. At the Chicago airport, he would show his passport, check his luggage, and rest at the gate. In his pocket, he would carry a list of gifts for his family and would think of the days shopping at the Spanish department stores.
He would fall asleep and when he arrived at the airport in Madrid, he would go to the luggage terminal, pick up his suitcase, and go through customs. Then he would go to his hotel. But last year was different. The plane made a stop in New York, and Frank decided to visit the city. In English, the context often communicates the meanings conveyed by Spanish verb tenses alone, since Spanish verb endings give the subject of the verb and also the time present, past, future, etc.
Contrast She used to smoke with Fumaba, where a single word indicates a habitual action repeated in the past. As you work with the exercises, you may wish to go back to the previous units Units 4 and 5 on the preterit and the imperfect to review the explanations.
The following list summarizes the uses of the preterit and the imperfect tenses. Ellos se casaron el mes pasado. They got married last month. Los Ortega regresaron anoche. Yo estuve en su casa por tres horas. The Ortegas returned last night. I was in their house for three hours.
You entered, looked at Felipe, and s h o o k his hand. I used to see my cousins every week. The theater had three exits. Su esposo era alto. Her husband w a s tall. We w e re very nervous. My grandparents w e re sixty years old. Eran las diez. Ellas pensaban en sus parientes. Remember: the choice of the imperfect or the preterit can sometimes be determined by the idea you wish to convey. Focus on the nature of the verbs and the expressions of time to help you choose the appropriate tense.
Ellos no saber bailar el tango. Anteanoche Elsa dar un paseo por el centro. Felix observar los planetas con el telescopio? Tip: use the Spanish preterit for each verb in italics. Sunday was my favorite day of the week.
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I would wake up late and read the newspaper in bed. That Sunday was different. I got up early, got dressed quickly, and left to ride my bike around the neighborhood el barrio. It was a beautiful morning. It was chilly, too. While I rode my bicycle there were many active people in the park. Two young women were jogging while a dog followed them. An older gentleman exercised in the park and two children played. Suddenly, so much activity made me feel tired. Go back to your Spanish translations for the previous exercise ejercicio 6- 2 , and explain why each of the verbs in English italics was best translated by the preterit.
More Uses of the Preterit and the Imperfect The following reference list contains a few more uses of these two tenses. It was a beautiful day and suddenly it started to rain. The reporter was leaving the store when the accident occurred. Ana cocinaba mientras yo preparaba la mesa. Ana cooked while I s e t the table.
More About the Preterit and the Imperfect 63 To ask a question using this construction, use either of the following models. Study the following three examples of these constructions and their single English equivalent. How long had you been living in Mexico? While I was singing, Juan came into the room. My boss had been on vacation for three weeks.
She was singing, and all of a sudden someone opened the door. Then use it to tell how often you used to do these actions when you were younger. Note the example. Last night puse la mesa para la cena. Yesterday estaba muy impaciente. Remember that the message in an isolated sentence must rely on the words surrounding the verb. For each of the sentences in the previous exercise ejercicio 6- 7 , write the reason you chose the preterit or the imperfect. If a key expression gives you a clue, include it in your answer. More About the Preterit and the Imperfect 65 4.
Ana was twenty-eight years old when she married Marco. She became a nurse a month before the wedding. While the guests arrived, the waiters served some drinks. It was eight thirty when Ana and her husband arrived at the party. Despite the tears, the guests enjoyed the evening. It was twelve thirty when the newlyweds decided to leave on their honeymoon. To Germany! One example in English is to become. Note the use of the preterit in the following examples. Keep in mind that in different contexts these verbs communicate different ideas.
These examples are narrations in the past, but you will also see these verbs in other tenses. He became angry. Carlos became crazy. The message intended here implies a sudden expression of rage that may suggest true insanity. Yo me hice contable. Nosotros llegamos a ser mejores que los otros jugadores. W e became better than the other players. Cuando me aumentaron el sueldo me puse muy contento a.
Cuando vi los resultados de la bolsa de valores the stock market , me puse triste. En el metro me robaron la cartera y cuando me di cuenta yo ponerse. Ayer Lina y Sandy tuvieron una entrevista y 5. Un i t 7 The Future and the Conditional The Future Tense The future tense is used to indicate actions that will take place at some point later on, viewed from the present. In Spanish el futuro is the equivalent of English will or shall followed by a verb. W e will buy the car tomorrow.
W e are going to buy the car tomorrow. Use the following conjugations as models for all regular verbs in the future tense. The auxiliaries shall or will are needed to conjugate the equivalent tense in English. Tomorrow will be Tuesday. Primero, ella 3. Yo la 4. Alicia y su hermana 6. Sus padres estar ocupada. The children shall not climb the trees. The sales clerk will add up the bill la cuenta. My sister and I will wait. Irregular Verbs in the Future Tense There are relatively few irregular verbs in the future tense.
They follow one of three patterns: poner to put , poder to be able , and decir to tell. Compounds of these verbs are also irregular. The endings are the same for regular and irregular verbs in the future tense. There will be many surprises at the party. The f is an indication of the old spelling and pronunciation of facer which later became hacer and has remained in this compound. Cambia los verbos en negrita in bold face y escribe el futuro.
Some verbs have irregular forms in the future. Salimos de la ciudad para ir al campo. En la ciudad hay mucho ruido. En el campo encuentras tranquilidad y paz. Los chicos no vienen esta vez con nosotros. I will go with you. She will smile. Who will help? Will they do the homework? The future tense is used to indicate actions that will take place in the future. However, the future tense in Spanish communicates other messages as well. Here is a summary of its uses. Tomorrow I will see Ada. The party will be on Friday.
Here are some frequently used time expressions that indicate the future. This use is the equivalent of some English expressions: can, I wonder, must be, and probably. Estaremos a diez millas de Madrid. W e must be ten miles away from Madrid. I wonder how much that beautiful bag c o s t s. Note in the last example the English equivalent is an indirect question preceded by I wonder. Usa el futuro en tus respuestas. After each statement, complete the question to indicate a conjecture about each sentence.
Use the future tense of the verb in italics. Es una mujer famosa. Ahora va a un lugar secreto. De 6 respuestas con V, eres muy optimista. De 4 a 5, eres optimista. De 2 a 3, eres algo pesimista. De 1, sin comentarios! Consumiremos menos productos saludables healthy. Tomorrow it will rain llover in California. In Texas the temperature will rise subir to 92 degrees. Heavy rain will fall caer in south Florida.
The Future and the Conditional 73 4. The sun will shine brillar all day in Colorado. The skies will be estar cloudy in the Northwest noroeste. A reference to a future time will often appear in the context along with these constructions. In this unit, review the earlier list of expressions of time that refer to the future. The time expressions are also used in sentences with the following future constructions.
Later I will buy pears at the fruit stand. I will travel to Germany this summer. Note that the English use of the future will, shall does not always correspond to the use of the future tense in Spanish. The equivalent English situations translate with will or shall. W ill you drink wine or water? The verb in the main clause, also called the result clause , may be either in the present or the future. Si tienes dinero, puedes comprar las golosinas. If you have money, you will be able to buy the candy. Escribe el resultado de las condiciones siguientes.
Usa el futuro. Si Luis se queja to complain , ella venir a ayudarme. Si tu convences al vendedor, nosotros 6. Ellos tener una buena rebaja. Yo llevar mi paraguas si llueve. My neighbor Lidia is probably future of probability a good person, but she is a bit unusual. Every morning, Lidia reads the newspaper. Will Leonardo buy a diamond ring? Will they have a sensational wedding? Will they live in an exotic place? Here comes Lidia now.
I will wear my earplugs, and I will smile happily while she speaks. The formation of the future and the conditional are similar. In addition, the same verbs have the same irregular stems in the future and the conditional. First, let us look at the forms of the conditional, called the condicional or potencial in Spanish.
The word would is needed to conjugate the equivalent in English. Tocan a la puerta. They knock on the door. What would you do? Wilma planchar 5. Marcos esperar a sus amigos que tienen un coche nuevo. Nosotros ofrecer ayuda a nuestros amigos si la necesitan. Mis hijos me llevar al centro comercial. Fred ejercicio volver a dormirse. Would you Uds. The children would not play with this toy. Who would bring the beer? Pedro would not laugh. I would not read this novel. The mail carrier would bring traer the magazines. Irregular Verbs in the Conditional The irregular verbs in the conditional are the same verbs that have irregular stems in the future tense.
I would have, etc. I would be worth, etc. I would sell, etc. I would know, etc. Remember that haber is also used as an auxiliary verb in the perfect compound tenses. All endings for regular and irregular verbs are the same. Consult the list of compound verbs in the section Irregular Verbs in the Future Tense, which appears earlier in this unit. Subraya Underline el verbo en el presente. Yo salgo de casa a las siete. The Future and the Conditional 77 3. Puedo llegar a la tienda muy temprano. No quiero perder mucho tiempo sin encontrar buenas rebajas sales.
Usa la forma apropiada del condicional en tus respuestas. There would be too much noise. Would they go too? Carlos would smile. Who would come? La fregadora de platos no funciona. El auto no tiene gasolina. No hay un programa interesante en la tele. Both in English and Spanish the conditional is used to communicate several different messages. As you have seen in the previous examples and exercises, it expresses probability. Mona said she would come. Format: Paperback Condition: New! Other notes. See details. See all 4 brand new listings.
Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information Learn Portuguese in bite-sized lessons! The key to Practice Makes Perfect: Basic Portuguese is how manageable the grammar and vocabulary are presented to you. You're not overwhelmed by it all! Supported by engaging exercises, these 50 units cover all aspects of grammar and vocabulary, giving you a solid foundation in the language. Each unit is three pages in length, and you can expect to be completed with each in 10 to 15 minutes.
Features include: Key grammatical concepts and core vocabulary are absorbed almost effortlessly through exercises Flexibility for self-study or as a complement to your first-year class. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less. Add to Cart. Any Condition Any Condition. See all 5.