They have a high turnover. But the closer a store was to the Walmart location, the greater the likelihood it would close. Persky and his colleagues found that for every mile closer to the Walmart, 6 percent more stores closed. Close in around the store's location, between 35 and 60 percent of stores closed.
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And depending on the type of business, the impact of a Walmart moving in can be much worse. Persky says that the per-mile closure rate increase for drugstores is almost 20 percent. For home furnishings, it's about 15 percent. For hardware stores, it's about 18 percent per mile. For toys, it's more than 25 percent per mile. The research also shows that during the study period, from to , overall sales tax revenues went down in the two ZIP codes closest to or encompassing the Walmart. Before the store opened, the sales tax revenues for these two ZIP codes were growing at rates of 6.
After the Walmart opened, they each saw a boost — up to nearly 18 percent in the ZIP containing the Walmart and slightly up to about 5 percent in the ZIP next door. But by , both of those growth bumps had faded, and the ZIPs were seeing declines — negative 11 percent sales tax revenue growth in the ZIP containing the Walmart and negative 3 percent in the neighboring ZIP. The researchers also argue that by , the amount of jobs lost because of store closures was just about the same as those created by the Walmart store's opening.
It was, Persky says, a wash. The only thing I remember buying that day was a carton of strawberries. The Wal-Mart strawberries were deep-red and juicy and cheap. I ate them in the car on the way home, feeling decadent and guilty and satisfied.
Wal-Mart first opened a store there in ; since then, the store has shaped the town in ways both overt and subtle. In , the store began staying open 24 hours a day. In , it was converted into a supercenter—which essentially meant it increased by 42, square feet and now also sold groceries. At 95, square feet, the store is about half the size of the average supercenter. At that time, there were two other grocery stores in Fort Stockton; one has since closed down.
The town had to change the speed limit on the road because there were so many accidents involving people turning into or out of the parking lot. I came across Barragan in the sporting goods section of the store. She appeared to be looking for something, or someone. In the store, Barragan inevitably runs into students, former students, parents of students, and fellow teachers; sometimes it takes forever to get a simple errand done because of all the neighborly small talk.
Other shoppers came to the store for different reasons. The bill-pay line was a dozen people long and did not appear to be moving. A woman who makes the mile drive from her small town to the store every week told me that visiting Wal-Mart was half errands, half entertainment for her. A high school couple named Austin and Mackenzie were trying to exchange baby clothes for a gift card they could spend on diapers instead.
Austin used to work at this Wal-Mart. In a small town, the opportunity to talk to strangers was no small matter. The parking lot outside the store was its own whole scene, too. The far corner of the lot seemed to be an unofficial overnight camping location. As the sun set, a handful of RVers were settling in for the night. Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed a couple loading a big box into a truck and then speeding away. At the end of , Walmart removed t-shirts which implied a promotion of violence, with the words 'Rope.
Some Assembly Required'.
Criticism of Walmart
The CFI, a not-for-profit educational organization, stated in the complaint that Walmart "uses marketing, labeling, and product placement to falsely present homeopathic products as equivalent alternatives to science-based medicines, and to represent homeopathic products as effective treatments for specific diseases and symptoms. We take allegations like these seriously and will respond as appropriate with the court.
Until the mids, Walmart took out corporate-owned life insurance policies on its employees including "low-level" employees such as janitors, cashiers, and stockers. This type of insurance is usually purchased to cover a company against financial loss when a high-ranking employee i. The practice was stopped in the mids when the federal government closed the tax deduction and began to pursue Walmart for back taxes. With over 2.
These issues involve low wages , poor working conditions , inadequate health care , as well as issues involving the company's strong anti-union policies. This was found in a study by Oklahoma State University which states, "Walmart is found to have substantially lowered the relative unemployment rates of blacks in those counties where it is present, but to have had only a limited impact on relative incomes after the influences of other socio-economic variables were taken into account.
In , a gender discrimination lawsuit, Dukes v. A class action suit was sought, which would have been the nation's largest in history, covering 1. In January , Wal-Mart announced that "diversity efforts include new groups of minority, female and gay employees that meet at Wal-Mart headquarters in Bentonville to advise the company on marketing and internal promotion. Walmart's cage-free eggs will not come from free range producers, but rather industrial-scale farms where the birds will be allotted between 1 and 1.
Walmart has not committed to phasing out battery cages in Latin America as it has in the United States,  the United Kingdom,  and Canada. The proposal never met local regulations because Walmart never owned all of the land upon which it planned to build, yet they fought for five years to build on land they didn't own and the city violated its own laws to help make that happen. Walmart's Midtown plan was rejected the first time in February ,  but was redesigned by Gensler  and approved by Miami Planning and Zoning Director Francisco Garcia in August , then upheld on appeal by the City Commission in November ,  Midtown Walmart faced public and political opposition from area residents, business owners, and community activists  after being adapted to meet strict zoning regulations that resulted in the design differing from the typical layout, such as utilizing second story roof parking versus a surface lot with more street liner retail spaces instead of a totally blank wall perimeter.
If built, it would be the first traditional Walmart location within the City of Miami limits, although there are numerous locations just outside city limits in Doral , Hialeah , Gladeview , North Miami Beach , and Westchester , as well as a " Neighborhood Market " in the western fringes of the city. After more than two years of litigation, Walmart won their first court battle in August The Midtown development already contains a Target and a Ross which makes another big box retailer like Walmart redundant for the site. The Walmart broke ground with an illegal permit from the City of Miami in January ,  after a panel of state judges in the 3rd District Court of Appeals blocked a petition challenging the development.
Criticism of Walmart
In , Stern won a judgment  against the City of Miami in a public records lawsuit related to Walmart's plan to build in Midtown Miami. That case proved Stern's claims that Walmart did not hold good title to all the land upon which they obtained a permit to build from the City. As a result, the City of Miami froze their permit and eventually, construction of the Walmart was involuntarily halted when the City revoked their foundation permit  on June 21, and construction ceased  at the site within the week, which is how Walmart's vacant Midtown site remains.
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Small Towns and Big Business: Challenging Wal-Mart Superstores - Stephen Halebsky - Google книги
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