Caesar famously recruited his cavalry from among the Gauls and Germans that he fought and allied with during his campaigns of conquest. During the Civil War, Pompey raised a huge army from his strongholds in the eastern provinces. These included cavalry units from Greece and Thrace, as well as those from further afield in Anatolia and Syria. Roman cavalry were equipped along much the same lines as auxiliary infantry, with iron mail armour, bronze helmets, and a mix of stout spears and light javelins they could throw. Marching to war, the legions would not be without their support.
Able to fling a missile great distance, the Onager was used for besieging forts or settlements. Onager would often be loaded with large stones or rocks that could be covered with a flammable substance and set alight. Perfect for devastating your foes! Black Powder Bolt Action What is Bolt Action? Stock Image. Used Condition: Very Good Hardcover. Save for Later.
VG clean copy in VG dj. Account of the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey with an emphasis on the military campaigns and the careers and armies of the two protaganists. Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. About this title Synopsis: Rare Book "About this title" may belong to another edition of this title. More Information. The more that the stupendous wealth in economy was glutted with slaves, the more dependent on them it became. Appian writes that the pirates potential rival to Pompey.
At this level of organization they were capable of raiding roads and besieging towns along the coasts of Italy. They even staged predatory raids into the western Mediterranean, where they were reputed to be in contact with various insurgent movements, including Sertorius in Iberia and Spartacus in Italy.
But most damaging of all, they were intercepting the Roman grain fleets plying between Sicily, Sardinia and Africa and the ports of Italy. As this raised the price of grain and led to shortages in Rome, it became a political question — for the common people of Rome, the proletarii, the price of grain was perhaps the most important issue in politics. At any stage of economic development, navies have always been expensive to build and have required handling by specialized crews.
Their construction and operation therefore demanded considerable disposable wealth. Part of the problem was that the maintenance of a navy merely for police duties seemed not to be worth the financial outlay, especially so when anti-pirate operations tended to be lengthy affairs and their success not always guaranteed.
Four years later Marcus Antonius father of Mark Antony , a praetor, was given wide-ranging powers and considerable resources to fight the pirates. The following year Antonius was compelled to conclude a humiliating peace, which the Senate later rejected. A neoclassical marble In 68 BC the scourge of piracy struck at the very heart of the Republic itself. CC , by Denis in flames. By the following year the shortage of grain had become so acute Foyatier — En that the lex Gabinia, the tribunician bill of Aulus Gabinius, was promulgated route from Iberia to Italy, and passed.
Its tenets granted Pompey, over the heads of existing proconsuls, Pompey mopped up a band imperium pro consulare and massive military resources with which to combat of Spartacan fugitives in the pirates. What is more, his command was not for the customary six months the north. With a typical but for three years, and encompassed the whole of the Mediterranean and the lack of tact and scruple, Black Sea and the entire coastline for a distance of 80km inland Vell.
There was from doing so he added enormously to his prestige. His plan had been an able this point on no love lost one. He first closed the Pillars of Hercules, the Hellespont, and the Bosporus, between Pompey and and then divided the Mediterranean into 13 zones — six in the west and seven Crassus. Pompey himself was not tied to a particular zone, but kept a fleet of 60 warships at his immediate disposal.
Around 90 of these of Sextus Pompeius were classed as warships and fitted with rams. The old pirate strongholds were slighted or destroyed which he then controlled, and the ex-corsairs and their families were successfully settled in more fertile to pay his seamen. It bears regions throughout the eastern Mediterranean lands App. Raiding Architecture and piracy were not permanently eradicated from the Mediterranean, but they would never again reach such epidemic proportions as they did in the early decades of the 1st century BC.
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Luckless Lucullus When Gabinius had proposed his bill, all the senators bar one opposed it. The dissenter was Caesar, who as a young man had been kidnapped by pirates and ransomed for 50 talents Plut. Two tribunes, Lucius Roscius and Lucius Trebellus, were even willing to act on behalf of the Senate and attempted to intervene, but to no avail. The slick Gabinius used the tactic first employed by Tiberius Gracchus and got the tribes to vote the two pro-senatorial tribunes out of office.
They unceremoniously backed down. For its part, the Senate thought that the consulship had solved the problem of what to do with Pompey by allowing him to take his place within the establishment. But crisis followed crisis and consul after consul failed. The redoubtable Pontic king, whom Sulla had humbled but not destroyed, was on the rampage again in Asia. The pirates waylaid and ransacked trading vessels that passed up and down the Mediterranean and swooped down upon poorly protected coastal towns and settlements. From the pillaging of famous shrines in Greece and Asia Minor, they had progressed to raids on Italy itself.
For such raids they used small open boats that could go close inshore, rowing into the shallows to avoid any pursuit, and dodging into creeks and darting up rivers. They were fast, ferocious and cocksure. The seas became so hazardous — even the grain supply of Rome was now in peril — that in 67 BC Pompey was given overriding command to deal with this pirate scourge, and put at his disposal warships, , infantry, 5, cavalry, 24 legates and two quaestors. Popular confidence in Pompey was so great that on the very day of his appointment the price of grain hence bread suddenly dropped.
For the first time in a very long time authorized fighting ships proceeded to clean everyone and everything out of every watery nook and cranny that had been convenient pirate havens. Pompey swept the Mediterranean free from pirates in a little under three months. In this scene we are off the headland of Coracesium in Cilicia. The proconsul Pompey is leading the marines of his flagship, a splendid six, in a boarding action against a grappled pirate vessel.
The marines are clambering over the side of their ship, shouting and wielding swords and daggers. The pirates have abandoned their oars and about to launch an armed assault on their war-seasoned assailants. Lucius Licinius Lucullus, the man who as quaestor in 88 BC had been the only officer to follow Sulla on his first march on Rome, was sent against the Pontic king with five legions. The next four years were to witness a string of victories for Lucullus over Mithridates.
By the end of 70 BC the power of Mithridates had been shattered and the king himself was a fugitive, driven across the mountains into neighbouring Armenia, the kingdom of his son-in-law Tigranes II. Yet despite his enormous success, Lucullus found himself sucked farther and farther east, and with an increasingly demoralized army. Perhaps without the support of the Senate, he crossed the headwaters of the Euphrates and invaded Armenia. The kingdom Funerary monument of the was on a high plateau with steep mountain ranges, which had been, until praefectus Tiberius Flavius quite recently, a patchwork of petty states owing allegiance to different rulers.
His jerry-built empire did not 1st century BC, from survive its first major test, however, for outside Tigranocerta Lucullus defeated Perinthus Kamara Dere. Tigranes and continued his pursuit of Mithridates. On the right we see a In the past, eastern armies had very successfully relied on overwhelming Roman officer. His gladius numbers to defeat an enemy, more often than not through a prolonged hangs on the left, the archery battle. Lucullus led an army of no more than 16, infantry with represents a centurion.
For 3, cavalry, mainly Galatian and Thracian auxiliaries, and the Armenian both Pompey and Caesar, king was extremely sorry that he had only one Roman general to fight. The tough and dependable royal quip provoked much sycophantic mirth. With their battle. One of the Sullan laws, the lex de maiestate, forbade a governor to lead troops beyond the borders of his own province without the express permission of the Senate.
What is more, Lucullus was surrounded by soldiers who had been with him for nigh-on six years, men who had marched over mountains and across deserts, zigzagging backwards and forwards chasing an elusive enemy. Their own general, on the other hand, was starving his veterans of loot. Little surprise then that a mutiny and smear campaign, orchestrated by Publius Clodius Pulcher, was instigated in order to undo Lucullus.
Lucullus was also hated by many influential groups back in Rome, in particular the equestrian businessmen, or publicani, whose tax-farming companies operated in the provinces. Back home, however, the general had become the target of violent criticism by various tribunes in the pay of the business lobby. On the point of total victory, Lucullus was thus starved of troops and resources, while his command was gradually dismantled around him Plut.
The following year, while Pompey was enjoying his success at sea, the irrepressible Mithridates popped up with yet another army and won a series of quick victories over the Roman occupying forces. Near Zela Zilleh, Turkey , for instance, a certain legate by the name of Triarius was trounced by Mithridates, his army apparently losing no less than 24 military tribunes and centurions. Lucullus could only watch in impotent fury as Mithridates and Tigranes recovered most of their home kingdoms.
It must have seemed to him that his fierce campaigns had not brought about pacification. As his world collapsed around him, Lucullus was given a rare moment of satisfaction when he heard the news that his pestiferous brother-in-law had been captured by Cilician pirates. Marcius, who intensely disliked Lucullus and was more than happy to show his contempt for him, had given the young mutineer the command of a war fleet.
It was while out on patrol with this fleet that Clodius had been seized. It seems that abduction by pirates had become something of an occupational hazard for young Roman aristocrats. At the beginning of 66 BC the lex The river Arax Araxes Manilia, the tribunician bill of Caius Manilius, granted Pompey command flows close by, while a of the war effort against Mithridates.
The majority of the Senate, recognising nearby hill is the location of a frontrunner when they saw one, had abandoned their qualms and voted ancient Artashat this time to award Pompey further and even more unprecedented powers. Artaxata , found in BC Not only was he to command the largest force ever sent to the east, but he by Artashes Artaxias.
The was allowed to make war or peace without direct reference to the Senate, the first king of Armenia was obvious intention being that he should defeat Mithridates once and for all. At the time it seemed logical to grant Pompey the mission against It was outside Artaxata that the Pontic king, and amongst the backers of the law was Cicero, now a Tigranes r. Though born in the same dependency, and his son year as Pompey, Cicero was practically without military experience — he had and heir a hostage in Rome.
The site dates back to the Assyrian and Palmyrene periods. Farhad III Phraates, r. At the time not much was known reflecting the moderate opinion of the day. Parthians; such ignorance With all the backbreaking groundwork already done by the luckless was to spectacularly Lucullus, Pompey swiftly defeated Mithridates in his first year of operations. He then left his Cilician base to confront Mithridates Bertramz in the north. The army he took with him was not large, being only as much as he needed, for he had already by adroit diplomacy managed to involve Tigranes against the Parthians, and the Pontic king was conveniently isolated.
Mithridates encamped at first in a strong mountain fastness, in a part of his kingdom known as Lesser Armenia, but retreated to a less secure position as a result of water shortage. Pompey occupied the stronghold thus vacated, deduced from the vegetation that water existed at no great depth and successfully dug wells.
Pompey pursued him as far as the upper reaches of the Euphrates, and an engagement was fought there by moonlight. The low moon behind the Romans cast long shadows ahead of them and played havoc with Pontic missile fire. What followed is quickly told. Again, the crafty king escaped and fled to the northernmost part of his realm in the Crimea, taking the landward route around the eastern shore of the Black Sea in order to avoid the Roman fleet patrolling its waters.
Historically, the western portion of Georgia was known as Colchis while the eastern plateau was called Iberia. On the defeat of Mithridates in 65 BC, the kingdom of Colchis was occupied by Pompey, who installed Aristarchos as a dynast r. As for the Pontic king, Pompey did not established in the kingdom attempt to follow him northwards — the glittering but militarily irrelevant of Iberia was not to be one prize of Mithridates was not to be his concern — but found himself involved of any permanence. Pompey was to spend the next three years reorganizing the east under Roman control.
The whole coastline from Pontus to the borders of Egypt was incorporated into the empire, and the kingdoms of the interior were given General view of Mytilene definitive status as Roman vassals. In the north, not only Armenia, but port, looking north- Cimmerian Bosporus, Colchis and Iberia were added to the area under Roman north-east towards the suzerainty, which extended, in theory, as far as the Albani of the eastern Genoese castle. In the Caucasus. This career of eastern conquest gained for Pompey a huge patronage, spring of 62 BC Pompey but it was pointed out that he was not, in fact, doing much campaigning distributed lavish rewards against Mithridates.
Pompey, however, had decided that Lucullus was wrong to his soldiers and then set to follow the old king around his territories while his army grew ever more out in a rather leisurely fashion to return to Rome. Instead he made it diplomatically impossible for Mithridates Among the places he to gather allies or find any place to rest.
The Greek city was granted its freedom as a compliment to its distinguished citizen Vell. In return, Mytilene was to pay honours and the appellation of saviour and benefactor not only to Pompey but also to the eloquent Theophanes. Antiochos, the Jerusalem.
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Despite 13th man of that name to have sat upon the Seleukid throne, and recently internal discord between restored to it by Lucullus, fled into the desert, where he was ignominiously the partisans of the two murdered by an Arab chieftain. Pompey dispatched the wrath of his contenders for the Jewish kingdom and annexed Syria, declaring it a new province of the empire — throne, Pompey was forced probably as a bulwark against the Parthians.
The following year, after to besiege Jerusalem for abortive plans to make a comeback, Mithridates died in the Crimea. There he laid siege to Jerusalem, and after three months took considerable slaughter. On entering the city Pompey and his of the Temple had been senior officers went into the holy of holies within the Temple of Jerusalem, filled up by the Romans on following the Roman urge to be the first to do anything, but out of respect a Sabbath, and in the took nothing from it Josephus Antiquitates Iudaicae After settling the affairs of Jerusalem, Pompey created followed no fewer than a list of dependent minor principalities including Emesa, Ituraea, Iudaea 12, defenders are said and the extensive, if sparsely populated, kingdom of the Nabataean Arabs, to have perished.
Airely whose capital was at rose-red Petra. Siege of Jerusalem, summer 63 BC : Pompey vs. Yet as a consular commander, Pompey showed none of the recklessness for which he had been known as a young man in Sicily, Africa and Iberia. For Pompey, unlike his rival in the glory game Caesar, there were to be no more heroics, no more Flat-baked clay plaque glorious victories at the cost of mounds of glorious dead. These unprecedented victories had brought Rome from the 3rd or 2nd vast accessions of territory, as well as a host of new dependent allies and a century BC.
Cataphracts huge influx of treasure and revenue. And naturally such belligerent imperialism some 3. Under the held two-handed without a Republic conquests were often very bloody — a body count of 5, qualified shield. A weapon for shock a general for a triumph back in Rome — and were followed up by enslavement action, it was driven home and pillage to defray the costs of the campaign, fill the yawning purse of the with the full thrust of the general and give his threadbare soldiers something to take home into civilian body behind it.
The life. Although, like every Roman conqueror before him, Pompey exploited Romans came to know the lands he conquered, nevertheless, he gave their people peace such as they cataphracts during their had not enjoyed since the fall of the Persian Empire. It also, not coincidentally, raised him to a pinnacle of glory and wealth. But when combined There was an obvious precedent for all this. To the great sorrow of the Jews, Pompey penetrated into their innermost sanctuary.
But this desecration of the Temple was more through curiosity than covetousness — its great treasures were to be carted off by Crassus a few years later. In the final showdown with Caesar the east would provide Pompey with his most solid support. Quintus Sertorius c. Unquestionably brave, the young Sertorius had been wounded at Arausio BC , the biggest calamity to Roman arms since Cannae. As one of the ten men said to have survived Orosius 5.
Next serving under Marius against the migrating Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, Germans, the Cimbri and the Teutones, along with certain Gaulish tribes, Archaeological Museum he had readily disguised himself as a Celt so as to spy out their intentions Carnuntum. As the Roman Plut. Siding with Marius and Cinna, he did not hesitate to reforms, cheap and continue the struggle against Sulla even after all others had either been undecorated but liquidated or gone to ground. He had an almost foolhardy and quixotic functional helmets needed approach to danger.
Seeking refuge in Mauretania, he managed to the poorest members of overcome its Sullan garrison.
Acting as a proper Roman proconsul rather than armour and clothing by an Iberian warlord leading some Iberians insurgents and a few Roman the state. This low-cost desperadoes, Sertorius had his own alternative senate and a readiness to helmet pattern gave good recruit able local talent, whom he would encourage to learn Latin and protection to the top of proper Roman ways. He was to show how Iberians under proper leadership the head. It had hinged and discipline could hold Roman armies at bay. The venerable Metellus Pius, after Sulla, was the foremost Roman of his day, a loyal servant of the oligarchy whose supremacy the dictator had laboured to re-establish.
It was about this time that he was reinforced by Perperna, whom we last met fleeing Italy, and the remnants of the Marian rebels who had backed the renegade Lepidus. And so the Sullan oligarchy, greatly alarmed that Sertorius, like a second Hannibal, might attempt to invade Italy, once again granted Pompey an extraordinary command, that of a propraetor, to assist the proconsul Metellus Pius.
We have already dealt with the events outside Lauron, so we shall jump ahead to the spring of 75 BC when Sertorius took the offensive against Pompey. Pompey had to be rescued by the man whose glory he had hoped to steal, for only the timely arrival of the proconsul prevented his complete and utter rout. WA Here we ability, albeit of the unconventional kind. Though driven by circumstances witness the brilliant riding into a war against his own people, Sertorius turned out to be adept at leading skills, combined with the irregular forces and exploiting a protean ability to disperse them in order to use of a composite bow escape the clutches of larger enemy forces.
Having served in Iberia before, short enough to fire in any he fully appreciated that even the most dangerous opponent could be direction from horseback, defeated if gradually worn down in a series of small wars, for continuous even straight backwards pressure is more effective than mere brute force. While riding away convoys, harass foragers and eventually sap the resolve of those who from an enemy, in either survived Plut.
Beyond anything else, he was following the basic at his pursuers. This was guerrilla precepts of attacking when least expected and avoiding a general achieved by twisting the action, so as never to be drawn into a situation where he would have to torso while simultaneously gamble his cause in an unfavourable battle.
Origins of Rome
By adopting unconventional drawing the bow, and then warfare activities, Sertorius was implying that he would be content to harass firing to the rear, all in one the Romans at every opportunity, stealthily ambushing them and slicing fluid motion. Sertorius Sertorius arranged for two horses, one run-down and the other robust, to be brought before them, and ordered a strong man to pull the tail off the nag at a stroke, which was impossible. He then had a weak man pull the hairs from the tail of the stallion one by one Val.
Seemingly, in return for warships and money, Sertorius was prepared to concede not only Bithynia and Cappadocia but also the Roman province of Asia App. Sertorius had put the matter before his senate and the general consensus of opinion was that the loss of territory not under their control was a small price to pay for aid, though Plutarch Sert.
Whether he did or not cf. Spann , he did send military advisers to organize and train the Pontic army in Roman fighting methods App. Insurgent that he was, when circumstances required, Sertorius did not hesitate to offer pitched battle, as we saw at the Sucro. He thus taught Pompey several sharp lessons, especially in their early encounters, and Pompey was to learn from his mistakes, quickly maturing as a commander.
Both Pompey and Caesar employed in their armies contingents of Iberian horse, which were of excellent quality and were trained and equipped to fight en masse. In the end, Pompey, by campaigning with more circumspection and operating in concert with Metellus Pius, gradually backed his wily mentor into a corner. Perperna, ultimately of Etruscan origin was nevertheless a Roman and a noble Vell. He obviously possessed pride greatly in excess of his actual ability, for his military record to date was an unbroken string of defeats, several of them inflicted by Pompey himself.
By the following year Pompey had brought the Iberian conflict to a successful conclusion, and he commemorated it with a trophy in the Pyrenees, topped by his own statue and inscribed to say that he had conquered no less than towns from the Alps to the boundaries of Hispania Ulterior Sall. We are perhaps looking here at an early example of his self-publicity outrunning his real achievements.
Ma in lion Republic, while the man himself slipped quietly into history to be little exuviae, thereby remembered. Of all In 63 BC, the old its rulers had established themselves as an independent dynasty. The king, abandoned by all, population may have contained Greek, Thracian, Scythian and Celtic died by his own hand after elements, but it was dominated by a well-established Iranian aristocracy, defying the might of Rome and its kings adopted, or at any rate affected, Greek culture.
The sixth for almost three decades. As a result he had ready access to fertile grain-growing lands and to the resources of wealthy Greek maritime states, including a substantial navy. Mithridates, a cunning opportunist, would wage a series of wars against the Romans in an effort to drive them from Asia and Greece.
Rome had acquired a toehold in Anatolia, and the region along the Ionian coast was soon transformed into the province of Asia, a province now separated from the Pontic kingdom by only a thin array of pliant Roman allies. With just a token force in Asia, Roman commanders prior to Pompey had not been able to face Mithridates directly, so they had encouraged their local allies to act as proxies and police Pontus.
The scheme proved disastrous. In 98 BC, despite Marius having warned him to curb his territorial ambitions, Mithridates invaded Cappadocia, a territory to which he had some territorial claim. Two years later, the Senate sent Sulla east as propraetor to Cilicia on the southern coast of Anatolia. Sulla had marched off on his mission using only local levies.
While nothing came of it directly, Tigranes threw his lot in with Mithridates: he married his daughter. In 91 BC Mithridates once again appeared at the head of a massive, westward-moving army. He seized Cappadocia for a second time , as well as Bithynia, with the aid of his son-in-law Tigranes, and the Senate, once again, Silver tetradrachm of ordered him out. Aquillius showing the youthful joined local levies to the troops of Lucius Cassius, proconsul of Asia, and features of Alexander.
However, Aquillius went beyond his brief used philhellenism as a and extorted a large sum from Nikomedes in exchange for the liberation of means of attaining his kingdom, which, manifestly, he could not pay.
Therefore, under pressure respectability and from the Roman general, the Bithynian king was encouraged to raid across acceptance in the the border into Pontic territory. Mithridates lodged a formal complaint with Hellenistic east, the Senate. Mithridates used it as an A diplomatic nicety observed, Mithridates then exploited the foray overt political tool.
Plutarch Sulla PHGCOM had him paraded on an ass and then executed by the theatrical expedient of pouring molten gold down his throat as a punishment for his rapacity. It appears that Mithridates was no ordinary enemy of Rome.
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Persecuted by his wicked mother as a child, the young prince had been forced to take refuge in the mountains of north-eastern Anatolia. These mountains years, outrunning deer and outfighting lions, or so it was said. Nervous that divided the kingdom of his mother might still have him murdered, Mithridates developed a morbid Pontus into two distinct fascination with toxicology, dining daily on smidgens of poisons and areas, the coastal region antidotes to confer immunity when his body encountered the toxin again.
This division was also measure, his usurping brother and sister too. Exploiting his European toehold was difficult. His forces were constantly Mithridates VI Eupator harassed by Roman troops, now reinforced by the legions of Sulla, and would be the last ruler of the Greek cities had come to see the erstwhile liberator as little better than this Hellenistic kingdom. Mithridates, a consummate politician, knew when the Aleksafi game was up, and quickly concluded a peace agreement with Sulla: he renounced his conquests and agreed to pay an indemnity for disturbing the peace.
That was hardly the end, however. Beaten he may have been, but Mithridates still sat of the throne of Pontus — practically a guarantee of future war. What followed was a series of small but bloody wars, again pitting Mithridates against his neighbours and, in turn, against Rome. Within a few years, Rome at last reached the end of its tether.
The Senate once again invested ultimate military authority in Pompey.