The enzyme activity of the HRP hybrid nanoflower is enhanced by the large surface-to-volume ratio that facilitates contact with reactants. The above results revealed that the hybrid nanoflower is more useful for the development of a highly sensitive colorimetric sensing platform. Nanoflowers employing calcium ions have also been investigated, even though most nanoflowers are synthesized with the copper ion [ 44 , 45 ].
A nanoflower employing calcium phosphate crystals was synthesized by Wang et al. The flower-like morphology was confirmed and a postulate of how the activity increases due to the enzyme immobilization procedure was presented. Thus, Wang et al. A hybrid nanoflower employing calcium ions was also presented in a recent study [ 45 ]. Unlike previous synthesis methods using protein solution, chitosan CS and tripolyphosphate TPP were used to fabricate a gel-form composite via ionic bonding. Although this method has different steps from that used by Hou et al. Almost any type of catalyst could be used in this experiment because the catalyst combines with chitosan in the CS-TPP gel complex by electrostatic interaction.
However, because addition of the catalyst declined in the nucleation sites for calcium phosphate formation, it should be noted that the maximum amount of catalyst for the formation of the nanoflower was 5. This technique for nanoflower synthesis provides a new approach that facilitates the generation of the nanoflower using a variety of organic substances. Schematic synthesis of chitosan—calcium ion hybrid nanoflower. Chitosan binds to pyrophosphate through ionotropic gelation and generates CS-TPP gel complex which reacts with calcium phosphate crystal to form hybrid nanoflower.
Manganese phosphate hybrid nanoflowers were synthesized by Zhang et al. Although many analytical methods have been developed for the detection of ractopamine, such as liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry LC—MS [ 47 , 48 ], gas chromatography—mass spectrometry GC—MS [ 49 ], high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC [ 50 ], and bioassay [ 51 ].
They have some limits owing to high instrument cost and long-time analysis. To solve the problem, electrochemical methods were applied by using the phenolic hydroxyl group, which makes ractopamine electrochemically active [ 52 ]. However, this detection method was also limited that due to its low response activity on electrode surfaces. Hybrid nanoflower as a novel electrochemical biosensor overcomes the disadvantage. The detection limits of the developed electrochemical biosensors were 4. Compared with the detection limits of previous different methods, these results present that electrochemical methods using hybrid nanoflowers are more sensitive [ 52 — 54 ].
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- International Journal of Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials (JournalSeek);
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This study shows that the hybrid nanoflower can be used as electrochemical tools as well as catalyst or drug delivery matter. Hu et al. Because DNA is highly soluble in aqueous medium and has a high content of nitrogen atoms in its structure like protein, it could be used in the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers by binding metal ions. The DNA hybrid nanoflower morphology was combined with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET phenomenon to obtain high-resolution images of cells or to use for traceable drug delivery systems. Consequently, they were able to obtain a high-resolution image based on FRET between the dyes using long-wavelength light, which does not affect the cells.
Furthermore, the path of drug delivery in the living cells was successfully traced by monitoring the light emitted by the dyes. Thus, Hu et al. A capsular nanoflower was synthesized by Jiang and co-workers, as shown in Fig. Compared with early hybrid nanoflowers synthesized from a metal phosphate and protein, the capsular nanoflower was synthesized by an additional wrapping with protamine and silica through a biomimetic mineralization approach and removing the metal from the core. Because the rough surface of the multiple shells facilitates the adsorption of substrates, the capsular nanoflower exhibited significantly enhanced enzyme activity as well as better stability under extreme conditions high temperature, pH, long-term storage than simple hybrid nanoflowers.
These properties provide a practicable and useful solution for enhancing the efficiency in bio-chemical applications such as catalysis and drug delivery. Scheme of preparation procedure of the FPSH capsules: a formation of protein—inorganic hybrid microflowers; b formation of protamine-silica 2 bilayers on the microflowers; c formation of the FPSH capsules after eliminating the microflower template through EDTA treatment.
Furthermore, as more protein is used, the percentage of protein increases. However, the encapsulation efficiency the ratio of the amount of immobilized protein to the total amount of protein employed follows a completely opposite trend. Excessive addition of protein to a constant weight of inorganic component induces a dramatic decrease of the encapsulation efficiency. In light of these considerations, the proper amount of protein must be selected to conserve the protein and to attain good morphology and a high weight percentage.
Finally, we consider the enzyme efficiency of hybrid nanoflowers. These results suggest that the proteins in hybrid nanoflowers have higher activity and stability than the corresponding free enzyme solutions despite immobilization in the flower petals. Moreover, hybrid nanoflowers overcome the previously encountered problem of mass-transfer limitation and open up an avenue for application to various research and detection fields.
The mechanism for the synthesis of organic—inorganic hybrid nanoflowers comprises three steps Fig. These complexes provide a location for nucleation of the primary crystals. In the second growth stage, metal-protein crystals aggregate into large agglomerates of protein molecules and primary petals are formed. In the final step, anisotropic growth leads to complete formation of a branched flower-like structure. In the absence of the proteins, large crystals, but no nanoflowers, are formed. Synthesis mechanism of organic—inorganic hybrid nanoflower.
In the s, the development of enzyme immobilization technology inspired chemists to design new biomaterials containing highly stabilized enzymes. However, immobilization generally led to loss of the enzyme activity. By the s, the activity of enzymes immobilized on nano-sized materials could be maintained at levels up to that of the free enzymes. Interest in this field was again awakened with the unearthing of the first organic—inorganic hybrid nanoflower in , and many studies focusing on new flower-like hybrid nanomaterials are still in progress.
Future research for the development of drug delivery systems, biosensors, biocatalysts, and bio-related devices is anticipated to take multiple directions. New synthesis principles, new types of hybrid nanoflowers, and detailed mechanisms are expected to emerge. The application of nanoflowers in bio-catalysis and enzyme mimetics, tissue engineering, and the design of highly sensitive bio-sensing kits, as well as industrial bio-related devices with advanced functions, various and controllable syntheses, biocompatibility, and modifications of hybrid nanoflower structures and properties, should receive increasing attention.
In summary, organic—inorganic hybrid nanoflowers have piqued the interest of researches and numerous related papers have been published. Research in this field is spurred by the simplicity of the synthesis and safe conditions. Moreover, high efficiency and enzyme stability are readily achieved with hybrid nanoflowers. We believe that the study of organic—inorganic hybrid nanoflowers will lead to creative solutions and rapid development of biomaterials and biotechnology industries.
Bio‐inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials | Wiley Online Books
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Bio Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials Strategies
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Bio Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials Strategies
Contents Preface. Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga. Patil, Stephen Mann. The Hybrid Approach. Lvov, Ronald R. Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry. Human Biochemistry.
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