The LC conditions were as follows. Venusil XBP C 18 4. The variable wavelength detector worked at nm. The mobile phase was the mixture of methanol and potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution at the constant ratio 5 : 95 by volume. The concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution was 0. The flow rate was 1. The injection volume was Each samples was tested 3 times. Among the 45 odorants shown in Table 1 , there were 15 esters, 5 alcohols, 4 acetals, 3 pyrazines, 7 carboxylic acids, 3 sulfur-containing compounds, 3 phenols, 4 carbonyl odorants and 1 pyridine.
The esters and acetals mainly contributed the fruity and sweet flavors to the Meilanchun baijiu, while the alcohols and 3-methylbutanal offered malty, roasted nut-like, the phenethyl alcohol contributed the flowery, the acids provided sour and sweaty, the phenols contributed the smoky, and methional offered cooked potato aromas. Pyrazines contributed some nutty and woody to the flavor of Meilanchun baijiu.
The FDs of uk1-M cooked potato and uk2-M sour were 9 and 27 respectively. Four kinds of carboxylic acids lactic acid, acetic acid, hexanoic acid and butyric acid are important to flavor in baijiu. All acids are volatiles except lactic acid which may usually ignored the contribution to baijiu aroma. Noteworthy the content of lactic acid was high This showed that the influence of ethanol concentration on the volatility of an odorant. There were 12 odorants with the OAVs between 10 and , such as ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate and 3-methylbutanal.
However, methionol, pyrazines and phenethyl alcohol had little effect on the aroma of Meilanchun because of their OAVs smaller than 1. For example, the FD factors of phenethyl alcohol, 3-methylbutanol and ethyl 3-phenylpropanoate possessed the largest FD values , but their OAVs were low which indicated that the influence of the food matrix on odorant binding. Based on the OAVs in Table 2 , esters especially ethyl hexanoate and ethyl butanoate , alcohols, acids, 3-methylbutanal, phenols, dimethyl trisulfide, methional, and 1,1-diethyoxyethane were considered to have important influence on the aroma of Meilanchun, which was basically in accordance with FD values and the reported results by Zheng et al.
However, 2-furfurylthiol with a roasted sesame aroma reported by Sha et al. According to the previous work, 26,27 the odor of roasted sesame seeds was characterized by sulfurous, roasty, nutty, and meaty notes. The authors had not found a compound with a sesame-like flavor. The sesame-like flavor might be a composite flavor, and so there was probably no compound with sesame-like flavor. As shown in Fig. The aroma of the recombinate had good similarities for sweet, fruity, grain-like, acidic, ethanol and pit mud-like, although the roasted sesame had some deficiencies. This implied that there were interactions among the odorants.
These results indicated the successes in simulating the typical flavor of Meilanchun. This is the first time to study the flavor profile of Chinese baijiu. However, no significant difference was observed when ethyl lactate was omitted, or methionol was added. The results revealed that esters, phenols and acids were very important for the aroma of Meilanchun, especially ethyl hexanoate, methional, ethyl butanoate, and dimethyl trisulfide.
The esters were mainly responsible for the typical fruity note of Meilanchun, but ethyl lactate has a little influence in spite of its relatively high level in Meilanchun, which were traditionally regarded as the most key aroma compounds because of their particularly high concentrations. Besides, when the two compounds were omitted, the intensity of malty aroma decreased significantly, while the roasted note decreased slightly.
Therefore, they were responsible for the malty aroma and part of roasted note in the entire model mixture.
When the mixture model was lack of lactic acid or acetoin, their aroma profiles had some changes in the softness or harmony. Therefore, lactic acid and acetoin a mild creamy odor could be as two blenders for the aroma of Meilanchun, since the creamy odor has good compatible with other odor note. This is the first time to confirm the effects of lactic acid and acetoin on the flavor of roasted sesame flavor baijiu.
In addition, the omission of phenethyl alcohol or compounds without odor threshold resulted in an insignificant difference from the complete reconstitution. Although phenethyl alcohol had a very high FD value, it had a little contribution to the aroma of Meilanchun because of its low concentration. This was different from the results of the roasted sesame flavor baijiu reported by Zheng et al. Meanwhile lactic acid was quantified by HPLC. There were 35 important odorants with OAVs more than 1.
The omission experiments further confirmed that ethyl hexanoate, phenols, methional were the key odorants making contributions to the overall aroma of Meilanchun baijiu, and ethyl butanoate, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanal, acetoin and lactic acid also were important compounds to aroma. Methionol and phenethyl alcohol were not the characteristic odorants for Meilanchun sesame aroma-type commercial baijiu.
Received 30th March , Accepted 13th June Quantitative analysis by GC-MS. Baijiu sample was diluted by ethanol to The internal standard solutions were prepared as follows. The standard stock solutions were prepared with Then the different concentration standard solutions were obtained by diluting the stock solution step by step. Finally, 1.
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The standard curves were carried out by plotting the response ratios of standard compounds and internal standards against their concentration ratios. The flow rate of helium was 1. Quantitative analysis of lactic acid by liquid chromatography LC. Because the content of lactic acid is very high in many baijius and probably has some contributions to the flavor of baijiu, it needs to be quantitated. Determination of methionol and methional. The content of methionol and methional was measured by an external standard method and a liquid—liquid extraction followed by a GC-MS analysis, with the organic phase O 1 from the above part of isolation of the volatiles as the analysis sample.
The standard solutions of two sulfur-containing compounds were prepared with These different standard solutions were prepared as the above baijiu samples. The sensory analyses were carried out by the 5-point hedonic scale, using trained panelists. As compared to non-inoculated full-fat control, the use of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus casei and Lactococcus helveticus as adjunct starter cultures in the reduced fat cheddar cheese formulation increased the amount of volatile flavor compounds and enhanced the sensory attributes.
The combination of this mixed culture with the reduced fat cheddar cheese containing xanthan gum as fat replacer is a viable alternative to improve the quality characteristics of reduced-fat cheddar cheese. Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Lebenson Wiss Technol. Marsili RT, Miller N. Determination of major aroma impact compounds in fermented cucumbers by solid-phase. J Chromatogr Sci.
J Agric Food Chem. Pawliszyn J. Solid phase microextraction-theory and practice. New York, Wiley, Int Dairy J. Flavour of Cheddar cheese: A chemical and sensory properties. Changes of organic acids, volatile aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of Halloumi cheese kept in brine. Food Chem. Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: a review. Hawke JC. The formation and metabolism of methyl ketones and related compounds. J Dairy Sci. Characterisation of biochemical changes during ripening in Argentinean sheep cheeses, Small Rumin Res. Beuvier E, Buchin S.
Raw Milk Cheeses. Volatile organic compounds produced by thermophilic and mesophilic single strain dairy starter cultures. Dacremont C, Vickers A. Concept matching technique for assessing importance of volatile compounds for Cheddar cheese aroma. J Food sci. Milo C, Reineccius GA. Identification and quantification of potent odorants in regular-fat and low-fat mild Cheddar. Lactococcus lactis via aspartate catabolism. J Appl Microbiol. Torta del Casar during ripening.
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Effect of Enterococcus faecium on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Greek Feta cheese. Int J Food Microbiol. Aust J Dairy Technol. Stefanon B,Procida G. Effects of including silage in the diet on volatile compound profiles in Montasio cheese and their modification during ripening.
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Esters and their biosynthesis in fermented dairy products: A review. Synthesis of ethyl butanoate by a commercial lipase in aqueous media under conditions. Abd El-Mageed, M. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content. Grasas Aceites. Food Res Int. Appl Environ Microbiol. All rights reserved.
Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes
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Characterization and Measurement of Flavor Compounds (ACS Symposium S.)
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