What the test does. The tumor tissue is examined to determine the activity levels transcription levels for 70 different genes that have previously been shown to be involved in the spread metastasis of breast cancer.
Based on which genes are active, and their levels of activity, the test is able to predict how likely any particular cancer is to return after surgery. The test has been shown to be useful for women with early stage invasive breast cancer stage 1 or 2 , whose cancer has not been shown to have spread to their lymph nodes node negative. The presence or absence of the estrogen receptor ER does not influence the test. The test has only two possible outcomes.
Results are classified as either 'low risk' or 'high risk'.
Molecular Diagnosis of Cancer : Joseph E. Roulston :
The results are used in combination with all of the other available information about the patient to help decide what additional treatments the patient should take i. Post-menopausal women recently diagnoses with lymph node positive cancer may also be able to use the test.
The score is reported on a scale of , based on the activity levels of the 21 genes. The score is used to make two different predictions. Any patient who is not confident in their ability to interpret the results should discuss them with a qualified individual. All patients in the studies used to validate the test took tamoxifen, a hormonal breast cancer treatment. The report also includes detailed information on the results for three of the 21 genes examined in the test. The ER and HER2 genes are specifically listed out because the levels of the protein products of these genes are linked to responses to hormonal and antibody -based treatments for breast cancer.
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In cancer, some genes are too active, and some are turned down too much. This test was develped by Genomic Health and is designed to look at the activity of 12 genes. The other five allow the lab to make sure the test is working properly.
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The test is performed on colon cancer tissue removed during surgery. The purpose of the test is to make predictions about how likely the cancer is to return recur after it is removed surgically. If the cancer is likely to return, the patient may choose to take chemotherapy. The test has been validated by clinical studies of colon cancer patients but is still under review and has not yet been adopted by the major clinical cancer organizations as part of standard cancer treatment.
At least one publications concludes that additional testing is necessary to confirm the usefulness of the test to patients.
Molecular Diagnostics in Cancer Patients
The test is for patients who have confirmed stage 2 colon cancer. What are the results of the test? The higher the number, the more likely the cancer is to recur in the the three years following the surgery. Providing reliable information about cancer biology and treatment.
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Used only for stage 2 colon cancer. P Cancer is a disease that results from genetic changes changes to the patients' DNA. Diagnostic tests are able to examine: 1. It is hoped that these expression patterns can be used to: Create diagnostic tests that are less invasive or are better indicators in early stage disease. Help identify new targets for treatment. In Molecular Diagnostics for Melanoma: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers and clinicians in the field of melanoma provide updated information on biomarkers and assays for diagnosis, prognosis, and assays predicting response to treatment for routine testing.
The focus of the volume is on biomarkers with established clinical validity rather than those on early discovery stage. With additional in-depth discussion of the molecular biology and pathology of melanoma, treatment options in adjuvant and metastatic setting, and implications of biomarker testing for clinical management of melanoma patients. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include extensive introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
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