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E-mail: walterbioaraujo yahoo. The first systematic studies on insect galls in Brazil date to the early 20 th century, after which research on insect galls remained dormant in the country, with interest not reviving until the s. The aim of this study was is to document historical trends in publications about insect galls in Brazil over the last 30 years. Papers about insect galls and galling species in Brazil published in peer-reviewed journals from to were compiled. A total of 1, papers were analyzed, of which addressed insect galls in Brazil. The results showed that the number of publications on the subject has been increasing over the last 30 years, and especially in the last decade.

The diversity of journals that published on the subject has also been increasing. The studies were concentrated on the following topics: ecology 94 papers , inventory 29 and taxonomy Most of the insect gall inventories in Brazil took place in the Southeast Region 29 papers , followed by the Central-West and Northeast regions, with eight papers each.

This study documents a trend toward increasing scientific production on insect galls in Brazil, but with significant geographical bias: the researchers involved are concentrated in the Southeast Brazilian region.

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Ecological interaction; Galling insects; Plant-insect interaction; Scientometry. Although reports on insect galls in Brazil have been published since the 19 th century, the first systematic studies involving them date to the early 20 th century Moreira, From to , important natural historians, such as J. Tavares Portugal , E. After this period, the study of insect galls in Brazil remained dormant, with interest in the group not reviving until the s. Since then, studies on galling insects have been carried out in different regions of Brazil using a variety of approaches and focusing on topics such as anatomy, biology, ecology and taxonomy Moreira, Brazil is the current leader in scientific production regarding insect galls, together with Mexico and USA Grandez-Rios et al.

The aim of the present study was to identify historical trends in the research on insect galls in Brazil over the last 30 years. Publications from to , available in different scientific journal databases, were compiled. The main features of the papers were described and historical trends assessed with regard to number of papers, journals publishing on the subject, quality of the publications, topics investigated and the most studied regions and states of Brazil.

The evaluation of scientific production in natural sciences has been the topic of discussion in recent years Brito et al. This platform includes several scientific databases such as SCOPUS and Scielo, which makes a more comprehensive search on the topic possible. The period analyzed in this study begins in the s, when gall studies were again becoming frequent in Brazil Moreira, The resulting papers had their titles and abstracts and when necessary the full text inspected to filter out only studies on galling insects in Brazil.

Thus, papers were included in the compilation only when it was explicitly indicated that the study was fully or partially performed within Brazil. The selected papers were sorted by year and journal. This index is frequently used in ecological studies but has also been applied to estimate journal diversity over time in scientometric studies e.

Pearson correlation was then used to evaluate the relationship between the journal diversity index and year. Journals were ranked by importance according to the number of papers published on the subject. All compiled papers were classified according to topic - the area s of knowledge they best matched - by inspecting the title and the abstract or the full text if necessary.

The topics included: agriculture focusing on agricultural pests , botanical anatomy anatomical, morphological and histochemical focus on galls , ecology investigating ecological factors at population, community or biogeographical levels , genetics genetic diversity , inventory checklists of galls and host plants , taxonomy focusing on systematics, descriptions and revisions of galling species and reviews compiling data from the literature or purely theoretical treatments.

Papers that fit more than one topic were counted in each. To give an overview of the distribution of papers identified as inventories, papers were classified by location Brazilian region and state according to the content and the description of the authors.

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Papers were considered inventories only if they presented primary data and sampled the community of host plants. Inventories carried out in more than two Brazilian states were included under each state involved. A total of 1, papers were recovered for the period of to , of which dealt with insect galls in Brazil Supplementary Material 1. The publications came from 67 different journals, with the ten most important having published The compiled papers comprise a variety of different topics Fig. The most common topic was ecology 94 papers , followed by inventory 29 and taxonomy 27 , which together represented The topics of the remaining papers were anatomy 15 , review 9 , agriculture 7 and genetics 2.

Among the subtopics of ecology Fig. The average number of total citations per paper was Considering the yearly rate of citation, Forty-eight papers were inventories Supplementary Material 2.

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Most of the insect gall inventories were located in Southeast Brazil 29 papers , followed by the Central-West and Northeast regions, with eight papers each Fig. The North and South regions were the least studied, with two and one papers, respectively. Inventories of insect galls in Brazil were performed in 13 of the 27 Brazilian states including the Federal District Fig. The results showed a significant increase in the number of papers published on insect galls in Brazil over the past 30 years, and especially over the last decade The growing number of publications on this topic follows a global trend of exponential growth in the number of scientific publications over recent decades Nabout et al.

Scientometric analyses have also shown a significant increase in zoological scientific production, as has been demonstrated for mammalogy Brito et al. Furthermore, recent scientometric studies have shown substantial growth in the scientific production of Latin American e. A large number of scientific journals 67 published papers about Brazilian insect galls, but the three most important in terms of number of publications were Brazilian journals i.

On the other hand, the ten most cited papers on the subject were almost all published in international journals such as Oecologia, Journal of Biogeography and Functional Ecology. These results indicate a great degree of regionalism in the scientific production on insect galls in Brazil, since most of papers were published in regional journals frequently in Portuguese usually with low impact factors.

Consequently, the number of citations per study and per year is generally low, which is relatively common for publications of Latin American authors Nabout et al. An increase in the diversity of journals that publish on the subject was also found, which indicates that over the last few years a greater variety of aspects of insect gall diversity has been studied in Brazil. Two other important topics of insect gall studies in Brazil were inventory and taxonomy. Inventories represented Inventory papers are important for describing insect gall diversity at different sites and provide information necessary for the development of other types of studies.

Taxonomic studies, in turn, represented Regarding the distribution of insect gall inventories among the geographical regions of Brazil, it is clear that there is a significant bias for studies in Southeast Brazil, which represents A similar pattern was also found for the states of origin of the first author, which are also concentrated in Southeast Brazil.

These biases are due to the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, which have historically been the most important Brazilian research centers both in article publishing and in staff training regarding galls and galling insects, in particular the laboratories of G. The former research center has been dedicated to ecological research over the past three decades, while the latter has focused on taxonomic studies and faunistic inventories since the s.

Despite the increasing number of insect gall inventories in Brazil, the results show that there have been no papers published on the occurrence of insect galls in This result can be attributed to the lack of professionals in this area of study in most Brazilian states, which may indicate a problem in the training of scientists in Brazil, which tends to be concentrated in the Southeast region of the country.

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The present study documents an increase in scientific production regarding insect galls in Brazil. On the other hand, there is great geographical bias among insect gall studies in Brazil, with most of the data acquired, and researchers involved, being concentrated in the Southeast region of the country. A future challenge for researchers conducting studies about Brazilian insect galls is to increase the rate of publication in international journals with higher impact factors and, consequently, increase the average number of citations per study.

Santos and one anonymous reviewer for suggestions on the manuscript and Erik Wild for English revision. Natureza On-Line, 15 1 : Almada, E. Biota Neotropica, 11 2 : Galling insects in the Brazilian Cerrado: ecological patterns and perspectives. In: Fernandes, G. Neotropical insect Galls. New York, Springer. Bergamini, B. Borges, P. Trends and gaps of the scientific literature on the Cerrado biome: A scientometric analysis. Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 10 1 : Bregonci, J.

Biota Neotropica , 10 1 : Brito, D. An overview of Brazilian mammalogy: trends, biases and future directions.

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Zoologia, 26 1 : Carneiro, M. Are gall midge species Diptera, Cecidomyiidae host-plant specialists? Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 53 3 : Carvalho-Fernandes, S. The insect gall richness in preserved and anthropic areas of caatinga. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Coelho, M. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 53 3 : Gall-inducing insects from Campos de Altitude, Brazil.

Biota Neotropica , 13 4 : Costa, E. Drew, C. Automated research impact assessment: a new bibliometrics approach. Scientometrics, 3 : How many species of gall-inducing insects are there on earth, and where are they? Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 2 : Fernandes, G. Hypersensitivity as a phenotypic basis of plant induced resistance against a galling insect Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. Environmental Entomology, 27 2 : Lundiana, 7 2 : The occurrence and effectiveness of hypersensitive reaction against galling herbivores across host taxa.

Ecological Entomology, 26 1 : Biogeographical gradients in galling species richness.

Bibliographic Information

Oecologia, 76 2 : The adaptive significance of insect gall distribution: survivorship of species in xeric and mesic habitats. Oecologia, 90 1 : Neotropical insect galls Vol.

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Open Access. Save to Library. Create Alert. Free Preview. The sole compendium on the ecology of tropical gall inducing insects Brings to light and to main stream ecology the most recent findings on the study of insects in the tropics Highlights the most recent findings on gall inducing insects and their host plants in the Neotropics see more benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy.