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A fuel container was attached on the anode side and 8M- 12M aqueous methanol solution was used as fuel. The frequency range for the impedance measurement was from 1Hz to 1. Results [] FIG. However, each fuel cell used a different concentration of a methanol solution as fuel. The fuel cells were operated at room temperature and atmospheric oxygen was use as the oxidant. The frit thickness was 2 mm and pore size was 0. It can be seen that the cell had a high open circuit potential about 0.

The performance of the cell with These results indicates that the frit based composite membrane can effectively prevent the methanol permeation.

The future of materials: Advanced Ceramics

The frit pore size ranged from 0. The cells were operated at room temperature. The The frit thickness was 1. With the increased frit pore sizes, the open circuit potential of the cell decreased and the current density increased. As the fraction of Nafion in the composite membrane increased with the increased pore size, the methanol permeation through membrane also increased.

Both open circuit potential and current density of the cell with glass membrane were higher than that without glass membrane. The results show that the glass membrane helps to prevent methanol permeation through the composite PEM. Figure 7 shows the relative performance of two fuel cells, one using a. Nafion filled frit and the other using a PPSA filled frit. It can be seen that the cell with PPSA filled frit composite membrane has a higher open circuit potential than the cell with Nafion filled frit composite membrane. The scope of the present invention should, therefore, be determined only by the following claims.

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Country of ref document : US. A fuel cell includes a porous frit based composite proton exchange membrane. The pores of the porous frit are filled with a proton-conducting material. Brief Description of the Drawings [] Understanding that drawings depict only typical embodiments of the invention and are not therefore to be considered to be limiting of its scope, the invention will be described and explained with specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings as listed below. Detailed Description [] It will be readily understood that the components of the embodiments as generally described and illustrated in the figures herein could be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations.

Example Fuel Cells: [] Porous frits approximately 0. Figure 7 shows the relative performance of two fuel cells, one using a Nafion filled frit and the other using a PPSA filled frit. Claims 1. The fuel cell of claim 1, wherein the proton-exchange membrane further comprises: an anode side comprising an anode catalyst and an anode current collector; a cathode side opposite the anode side, the cathode side comprising a cathode catalyst and a cathode current collector. The fuel cell of claim 2, wherein the anode side of the proton-exchange membrane further comprises a glass layer.

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The fuel cell of claim 1 , wherein the proton-conducting material comprises a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer, poly para-phenylene sulphonic acid PPSA , polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF or mixtures thereof. The fuel cell of claim 2, wherein the anode catalyst and the cathode catalyst comprise one or more metal catalysts.

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The fuel cell of claim 2, wherein the anode catalyst and the cathode catalyst comprise Pt, Pd, Ru or mixtures thereof. The fuel cell of claim 2, wherein the anode current collector and the cathode current collector comprise a porous gold layer. A membrane electrode assembly comprising: a proton-exchainge membrane comprising a porous frit with an anode electrode side and a cathode electrode side opposite the anode electrode side; wherein the pores of the porous frit are filled with a proton-conducting material; wherein the anode electrode side comprises an anode catalyst and a anode current conductor; and wherein the cathode electrode side comprises a cathode catalyst and a cathode current conductor.

The membrane electrode assembly of claim 13, wherein the anode electrode side of ithe proton-exchange membrane further comprises a glass layer. The meimbrane electrode assembly of claim 13, wherein the proton- conducting material comprises a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer, poly para- phenylene sulphonic acid PPSA , polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF or mixtures thereof. The meimbrane electrode assembly of claim 13, wherein the anode electrode catalyst and the cathode electrode catalyst comprise one or more metal catalysts.

The membrane electrode assembly of claim 13, wherein the anode electrode catalyst and the cathode electrode catalyst comprise Pt 1 Pd, Ru or mixtures thereof. A method of making a membrane electrode assembly comprising: forming a porous frit; filling the pores of the porous frit with a proton-conducting material; depositing an anode catalyst on one side of the filled porous frit; depositing a cathode catalyst on one side of the filled porous frit opposite the anode catalyst; depositing a current collector on the anode catalyst; and depositing a current collector on the cathode catalyst.

Taylor, R. Suib, " New and future developments in catalysis; batteries, hydrogen storage and fuel cells ", Elsevier C. Rahn, C. Beguin, E. Frackowiak, " , Supercapacitors ", Wiley A. Yu, Z. Chen, V.

Proton-Conducting Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applied Research by Mathieu Marrony - olagynulehyb.gq

Chabot, J. Godula-Jopek, W. Jehle, J. Pagliaro, A. Winter, J. Abu-Lebdeh, I. Stolten, B. Venkataraman, G. Theory and Practice. Second Edition ", Elsevier M.

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Mench, E. Kumbur, T. Corbo, F. Migliardini, O. Shekhawat, D. Berry, J. Gou, W. Na, B. Fontes, E. Bansal, P. Singh, N. Bansal, S. Mathur, T. Kordesch, M. Wang, H.

Li, X. Pasaogullari, " Heat and water transport models for polymer electrolyte fuel cells ", Wiley D. Wilkinson, J. Zhang, R. Hui, J. Fergus, X. Li, S. Research in the Institute of Optics spans a large variety of areas of optics, from the fundamental areas to more applied engineering areas. Regardless of their research areas, all PhD students at the Institute take courses that cover the full range of topics from optical physics to optical engineering. Departmental Research Biomedical Engineering Our research activities are diverse, ranging from medical imaging and image analysis to molecular and cellular engineering.

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