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Deciding who would go on crusade was dictated by the social and political structure of the region. Kinship also influenced participation in a crusade. It was common for sons to accompany fathers, brothers to go with brothers, or uncles with nephews. The decision of which family members would take up the cross, and which would remain behind was often made collectively.

The family members who remained behind were tasked with the maintenance and administration of the family property and position. The Crusades, like all wars, were extremely expensive. For example, Louis IX spent an estimated 3,, livres, or 12 times his annual income, on his first crusade in until his return in Individual lords were also expected to contribute toward the costs of the crusade and ransom. Paying for the war was a continual concern for all those involved. Though there was the opportunity for plunder, the costs of the crusade were rarely offset by the captured treasure.

The following document identifies the knights who accompanied Louis IX on his first crusade — and describes their terms of agreement. Joinville was a counselor and close friend to the king. The names and terms of agreement of the knights who accompanied Louis IX of France on his first crusade — The following poems offer critical perspectives on the Crusades from writers who lived through them. Joinville accompanied Louis IX of France on his first crusade — and was captured alongside the king when the Egyptians defeated the Christian army at al-Mansura, Egypt, in This witty minstrel flourished during the reign of Louis IX, to whom many of his works are dedicated.

At the time this poem was written, people began to question the value of participating in a crusade. However, Louis had already decided to go on his second crusade — , much to the unhappiness of his wife, many of his ministers and members of the clergy, and even some of his subjects. Rutebeuf did not want to anger the monarch by criticizing his plans, and possibly risk the loss of his patronage, so he presented the argument about taking up the cross in a dialogue form. Louis IX died in Tunisia in during this second crusade.

This account, critical of crusader actions, appears in a European text. What point does the author want to make by including this account? What criticisms of the Crusades does Rutebeuf present in his poem? Do you think the poet favors one perspective over the other?

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How would you characterize his attitude towards the Crusades? Why might the poet feel this way? This thirteenth-century poem, originally written in French, offers contrasting views on the merits of crusading. The fourteenth-century writer John Barbour has been called the father of Scottish poetry. Robert the Bruce was born in , and descended from Scots, Gaelic, and English nobility. A fight broke out, daggers were drawn, and Bruce killed Comyn near the Church altar.

To commit murder in a church was seen as sacrilege and a mortal, or serious sin. The Pope excommunicated Bruce, but the Bishop of Glasgow in Scotland absolved or forgave him and made plans for Bruce to quickly take the throne, which he did in In his quest for Scottish sovereignty, Bruce made a sacred vow that, if God would grant Scotland freedom from English rule, he would take up the cross. Bruce died on June 7, , without making the journey. This gesture was his penance for breaking his sacred vow to go on crusade during his lifetime and to atone for his past sins, including the sacrilegious murder of John Comyn in the Greyfriars church.

When a planned international crusade failed to occur, Douglas and his company of soldiers sailed to Spain where Alfonso XI of Castile was mounting a campaign against the Moorish Muslim kingdom of Granada. How does the passage demonstrate the importance of oaths and vows? What role does loyalty play in the story? How do these values relate to the Crusades? John Barbour, called the father of Scottish poetry, completed this poem on the life of Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, in This edition is based on a manuscript dated Therefore presently he sent letters to the lords of his country and they came as he bade them.

Then before these lords and prelates, he made his testament, and to many religious bodies he gave money in great quantity for the saving of his soul. Therefore I take this sickness and this pain as reward for my trespass. And since He now takes me to Him, so that the body cannot fulfill the device of the heart, I would that the heart, wherein that resolve was conceived, were sent thither. Therefore, I pray you, every one, that among you ye choose one who is honest, wise, doughty [fearless], and a noble knight of his hand, to carry my heart against the enemies of God, when my soul and body shall be parted.

In comparison to the Garrick portrait, this representation is of a more intimate nature. The face emerges from a brown neutral background, allowing the artist to focus on the actresses' earnest expression. The hairstyle is not as highly dressed as in the Garrick portrait, however, both show the same expression of anguish. Fanny, the daughter of Charles Kemble, was hugely popular, rescuing her family and the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden at a time when it was struggling. In she went to America and was as great a success there as she had been at home.

Despite her popularity, she was a reluctant performer, and only worked in the theatre when poverty made it essential. Portia however, she described as 'my favouritist of all Shakespeare's women'. Once she became aware of the conditions of slaves on the plantation, she left him and returned to Europe. She lived by acting and writing and published a number of anti-slavery works. Once Butler had been granted a divorce, she returned to America where she supported herself by giving Shakespearean readings.

Interest in achieving historically accurate staging had grown under David Garrick and John Philip Kemble. From the fine condition of these gloves, it would seem that they were carried rather than worn by Charles Kemble in Othello. They are very elaborate in the tradition of Elizabethan gloves, which were often gorgeously embroidered and intended as decorative gifts rather than practical clothing. On each is embroidered a winged lion, the symbol of St Mark, the patron saint of Venice where the action of Othello opens. These gloves are said to have been worn by the great actress, Sarah Siddons It is impossible to prove whether this is true.

These gloves were in the possession of the same family for over years, which brings them within a generation of Siddons herself. It is not possible to say whether they were worn on stage or in private. Even with photographic evidence, it can be difficult to prove that a costume or accessory was worn by a particular performer in a specific performance.

Sarah Siddons was the most famous tragedienne of the 18th century. This is one of her most celebrated roles, the title part in Thomas Southerne's tragedy Isabella or The Fatal Marriage. The heroine, believing herself widowed, marries again, purely for the welfare of her child who was played by her real son, Henry Siddons. The day after the marriage, she discovers that her first husband is still alive, and driven distracted, she kills herself. Audiences of the time adored such emotional works, and Isabella was known to make grown men cry and women to have fits of hysterics.

Known as a Tallis figure because the pose was originally copied from an engraving in Tallis's Shakespeare Gallery , which was in turn copied from a painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence These boots are said to have been worn by the great actress, Sarah Siddons These were in the possession of the same family for over years, which brings them within a generation of Siddons herself. The critic William Hazlitt wrote of this performance:. Kean was one of the few actors who could fill the vast Drury Lane theatre to its capacity of 3, His natural passion and fiery spirit suited a melodramatic style of acting but he made his name playing in Shakespeare, particularly as Macbeth, Iago and Richard III.

He was said to be at his best in death scenes and scenes that required intensity of feeling or violent transitions from one mood to another. Kean's private life was full of scandal and heavy drinking. He was the father of actor-manager Charles Kean and died shortly after they had appeared together on stage as Othello Edmund and Iago Charles in According to one account, on the first night the effect of his impersonation was such that the pit rose en masse and even the actors and actresses themselves were overcome by the terrific dramatic illusion.

Samuel Whitbread, shown wearing a barrel and standing on the steps of the model, shouts 'now by St Pauls the work goes bravely on'. The print is a comment on Samuel Whitbread's dependence on Edmund Kean's popularity and success to ensure the future financial security of the Drury Lane Theatre which at that time was close to bankruptcy. Melodrama became popular from the s to s and lasted until the early 20th century. Melodrama consisted of short scenes interspersed with musical accompaniment and was characterized by simple morality, good and evil characters and overblown acting style.

Characters in melodrama were stereotypical - there was always a villain, a wronged maiden and a hero. The emotions of the actors were played out in the music and accompanied by dramatic tableaux. Because of these musical interludes melodrama was not considered a 'play' and thus evaded the monopoly of the patent theatres stipulated in the Licensing Act. Early melodrama aimed to appeal to a working class audience. Indeed the heroes and heroines were nearly always from the working class and the baddies were aristocrats or the local squire. Melodrama often had romantic settings; ruined castles and wild mountains, reflecting the Romantic movement's obsession with the wilds of nature and exotic travel.

In the s and 30s there was a craze for domestic melodrama and for real life horror stories. Popular novels were also turned into melodramas. It was the first famous abolitionist work of fiction, and became a stage play in After its American success, the play opened at London's Adelphi Theatre. Melodrama became synonymous with spectacle and remained popular until the early 20th century. Terriss himself came to a melodramatic end - he was assassinated at the stage door of his theatre in Melodramas at Drury Lane were truly spectacular productions, designed to show off the new technology of the theatre.

The Whip and Ben Hur were designed by Bruce 'Sensation' Smith and stage effects included train crashes, boats sinking and chariot races.

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Dion Boucicault wrote himself the part of Shaun the Post, whose lively wit made him a London favourite at the Princess's Theatre when the play transferred there in March His wife Agnes Robertson played Arrah Meelish, known as Arrah of the Kiss from her method of passing a letter with escape plans to her foster brother Beamish in prison. Arrah is engaged to Shaun, but Beamish - now escaped - robs Feeney, a government inspector, and gives the papers he steals to Arrah. To save her, Shaun confesses to the crime. While escaping from his prison in Dublin Castle, he fights Feeney and flings him to his death.

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It was this 'sensation scene', with the ivy-clad tower scenery sliding down to represent Shaun's climb to the top, which was used for the posters. The play is about Marcus Superbus, an old Roman patrician under Nero, who falls in love with a young woman, Mercia, and converts to Christianity for her. Eventually they both sacrifice their lives for love in the arena to the lions. Photography was a novel and exciting development in Victorian days.

Most actors and actresses had studio photographs taken in everyday dress or theatrical costume for 'cartes de visite' and later 'cabinet cards'. Both were albumen prints made from glass negatives, attached to stiff card backing printed with the photographer's name. Their subjects included scenic views, tourist attractions and works of art as well as portraits.

They were superseded in the late s by the larger and sturdier 'cabinet cards' whose popularity waned in turn during the s in favour of postcards and studio portraits. This photograph comes from a large collection of 'cartes de visite' and 'cabinet cards' removed from their backings and mounted in albums by Guy Tristram Little d. Benjamin Oliver took the name George Conquest and with his son George born in ran the Grecian Saloon, built in the grounds of the Eagle Tavern, from to Bound to Succeed or A Leaf from the Captain's Log Book was the first piece played in the rebuilt and refurbished theatre in when the Grecian was advertised as 'one of the largest and most beautiful theatres in London, and capable of holding nearly 5, persons'.

It was co-written by George Conquest Senior and starred him as Christopher Wobbles, 'a neglected genius', and his son George as 'a nervous gentleman'. This poster dates from a later production, after the Conquests transferred to the Surrey Theatre in , having sold the Grecian for 21, more than 1 million today to an aspiring impresario who soon parted with it, at a loss, to the Salvation Army. A portrait of Terriss is featured on the poster, drawn from life shortly before his assassination on 3 August The Illustrated London News couldn't quite see how the title applied to the play, but admitted that it was 'both patriotic and nautical and the combination is attractive from the bill poster's point of view'.

The eye-catching poster you see here proves the point. The reviewer also tried to summarise the plot, starting with the sailor hero, played by William Terriss: 'Jack Medway is arrested, tried by court martial, jumps overboard from his ship, is hunted by marines, accused of murder his sweetheart Ethel Arden is persecuted, locked up, wanders in the snow her sister Ivy is abducted', and so on The audience response to events was predictable - 'it was a treat to hear the hissing of the villains as they perpetrated audacity after audacity and came up smiling to be hissed again'.

The hopelessly convoluted plot was typical of Melville's style but provided plenty of opportunities for hissing at the villain Harry and nick-of-time rescues for the heroine Gladys. Being on the brink of financial ruin, Lord Erskine is forcing Gladys to marry Harry, although she loves a sailor, Dick Marsh.

By means of a heavy veil, Bess takes Gladys' place at the altar, to Harry's fury. On the night Dick arrives home, there is a murder of which he is found guilty but in the nick of time escapes from Dartmoor and rescues his abducted Gladys from Harry's devilish clutches. It is, of course, Harry who is guilty of the murder and he is finally arrested. This scene was the work of Bruce 'Sensation' Smith. From the bustling stables of scene one to the eerie recreation of Madame Tussaud's Chamber of Horrors - location of one of the crucial, if slightly improbable, plot developments - Smith's attention to detail was meticulous.

However, in the final scene of the act, the designer responsible for so many remarkable spectacles surpassed himself. The Whip, the horse tipped to win the Guineas, was loaded into his horsebox at the station and the following scene then unfolded in continuous action. The train sets off.

The villain of the piece is seen clambering along the running board and uncoupling the horsebox, which is left stationary. There is the thundering sound of an approaching express train as the trainer tries desperately to free his horse. The Whip is rescued in the nick of time as the following train rushes from the tunnel to shatter the horsebox to smithereens and career over on its side, gushing steam The book tells the story of the slave Uncle Tom, and the cruelties and harshness of his life.

It was the first famous abolitionist work of fiction and became a stage play in The book stirred up great public feeling in the United States. Some even credited it with helping to start the American Civil War. Indeed, when Abraham Lincoln met Mrs Stowe in , he said to her 'So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war'. The book was dramatised in and played simultaneously at theatres across America. This music sheet cover is from the dramatisation of the novel.

After its American success, the play opened at London's Adelphi Theatre in From the middle of the 19th century the theatre began to take on a new respectability and draw in more middle class audiences. They were enthralled by the historical accuracy and attention to detail that was becomingly increasingly influential in stage design.

Pictorial drama placed great emphasis on the use of properties, and carefully studied costume detail and reflected a fashionable interest in archaeology and history. The inevitable long and complex scene changes meant that the plays, especially those by Shakespeare had to be cut. This use of historical detail gave the theatre a sense of learned respectability. One of the main exponents of pictorial drama was Charles Kean son of Edmund Kean. Charles Kean made painstaking research into historic dress and settings for his productions at the Princess's Theatre in Oxford Street during the s.

Kean was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and his passion for historical accuracy was lavished on the sets and costumes for his productions which were then explained in detail on his lengthy playbills. He spared no efforts to ensure the absolute accuracy and historical correctness in the design of Shakespeare's plays and he employed the best designers of the day. This set design by William Beaumont for a production called Titus Caesar at the Royal Pavilion Theatre, Whitechapel in , is one of his very early works.

The spectacular backdrop is complemented by two 'flats' side pieces of scenery which could be slid safely on and off the stage in their grooves for any changes of scenery, but it is, overall, a fairly simple, conventional design. Beaumont also designed the sets for a production of 'Harlequin Bluebeard' at the same theatre a year later. From to he worked at the City of London Theatre as a scenic artist and 'transformation specialist'. He produced some of his best work for the annual pantomime there, painting on transparent gauze to create reveals and transformations. When lit from in front, the design on the gauze appears solid, but a simple lighting change bringing in some light from behind will make the gauze transparent, revealing a scene behind it and creating a magical transformation.

This design for a fairy maypole was made for Charles Kean by William Gordon. It shows a large maypole with a leaf crown and three levels of ropes held by fairies dressed in yellow. Caricature of Henry Irving. Henry Irving at the Lyceum dominated the London stage for over 25 years and was hero-worshipped by his audiences. Shakespeare was the most popular writer for these actor-managers. It became fashionable to give Shakespeare's plays detailed and historically realistic sets and costumes.

Women Novelists of the 19th Century -- in the English Literature -- explained in Hindi

The stage spectacle was often more important than the play, and texts were cut to allow time to change the massive sets and to give maximum exposure to the leading role. Many actor-managers instigated reforms of one sort or another. William Charles Macready who managed both patent theatres in his career introduced proper rehearsals.

Prior to this the main actor would rarely rehearse with the rest of the cast. Edmund Kean's famous stage direction to his supporting cast was simply 'stand upstage of me and do your worst'. Macready, who was a rival to Edmund Kean, was an excellent Macbeth, Hamlet and Lear but had a wild temper and made many enemies. He retired in George Alexander was actor-manager at the St James's Theatre and was responsible for finding new work by British dramatists, particularly Oscar Wilde and Arthur Pinero.

By most of the actor-managers were growing old or had died. Irving died in and Tree in These pictures published in The Sketch record scenes from the first production of Oscar Wilde's comic masterpiece The Importance of Being Earnest in Many reviewers were unimpressed, feeling that the content of the play was too flimsy to be worthy of analysis and that, although undoubtedly funny, it lacked heart.

The audience at large found no fault, however. Allan Aynesworth, who can be seen in these pictures in the role of Algernon Moncrieff, later recalled 'I never remember a greater triumph. The audience rose in their seats and cheered and cheered again'. Sadly it wasn't to last.

Within a few months Wilde found himself sentenced to prison, and the society which had received him with adulation turned its back on him quickly and completely. Sarah Bernhardt invited Mrs Patrick Campbell to repeat her success as Melisande in Maeterlinck's romance Pelleas and Melisande, this time opposite Sarah herself as the male Pelleas.

This photograph of them is signed by Bernhardt. Bernhardt often took male roles during her career - she played a highly acclaimed Hamlet, amongst others - and even into her 50s and, as she was in , just turned 60, she 'conveys the most dignified and noble impression of being in reality the man whom she impersonates'.

Mrs Campbell had to learn to act in French 'How dared I? Some, including writer and wit Max Beerbohm, half-brother to Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, were slightly scandalised by it all: 'Sarah is a woman and Mrs Campbell an English woman, and by these two facts such a performance is ruled out of the sphere of art into the sphere of sensationalism'. A Dublin critic, when the show played the provinces a year later was more scathing: 'Mrs Campbell played Melisande, Madame Bernhardt Pelleas.

They are both old enough to know better'. William Charles Macready was intending to go up to Oxford University in when the financial troubles of his father, the lessee of several provincial theatres, called him to share the responsibilities of theatrical management. He worked with and acted for his father for some years and then at Bath, making his London debut at Covent Garden in For the next couple of seasons he found himself constantly cast as villains and, although his reputation for truthful and powerful impersonations grew, he found many of the melodramatically diabolical roles distasteful.

Rob Roy provided Macready with a positive role, exhibiting pathos, humour and heroism. The sentiments of the romantic outlaw defying oppression had a powerful effect on the audience when delivered in Macready's characteristically earnest, truthful style. Famous for her shapely legs, she was a singer and dancer of some repute. Vestris encouraged the use of historically correct costumes and of a box set complete with a real ceiling. One of the most influential woman managers of the 19th century was Marie Bancroft who introduced a new form of drama to the London stage - 'drawing room drama'. Bancroft later managed the Haymarket Theatre with her husband Squire Bancroft.

The refurbishment of the Haymarket and programme of 'drawing room drama' attracted a very middle class audience. South of the river Thames Emma Cons was committed to using the arts to improve the quality of life for the poor. In she took over the management of the Royal Victoria Coffee Music Hall and provided a programme of variety entertainment, concerts, educational and temperance lectures. The committee running the theatre was mainly made up of philanthropists and social reformers. From her niece, Lilian Baylis, took over the management of the Old Vic.

Baylis was to become the most influential woman manager in the 20th century, turning the Old Vic into a quasi-national theatre. Madge Kendal, pictured here with her husband, the actor William Kendal, did much to improve the standards in Victorian theatre and to bring it a respectability that would appeal to the middle classes. The couple imposed a high moral code both on stage and behind the scenes. Kendal was the youngest of William Robertson's 22 children and her family had been connected with the theatre for years. Her brother, Tom Robertson, was a dramatist whose work introduced the naturalistic cup-and-saucer type drama that rapidly became the fashion.

Although a sparkling comedian on the stage, and referred to in magazines as 'dear Madge Kendal', Mrs Kendal was by all accounts a cold and judgmental character. She disapproved of people and practices that did not conform to her strict code, and she had a poor relationship with her own five children. Her acting was outstanding however, and she was made a Dame in Madame Vestris was exceptional in that she was the first actress-manager, a successful female performer who leased and ran a London theatre, the Olympic Theatre, from This picture is from a production called Olympic Devils, a burletta staged as the Christmas entertainment in and based on the classical Greek legend of Orpheus.

The show was appropriately pantomimic in style; the script was full of verbal puns and slapstick humour. In the legend, Orpheus' severed head floated down a river still singing. This effect was created by Madame Vestris sticking her head through a hole in a painted model of some water, and the model being pulled across the stage. The following documents include an account of the privileges granted to crusaders by Pope Eugene III and a poem portraying the Crusades as the ultimate act of Christian devotion.

Review the privileges granted to crusaders outlined in this document. Hypothesize the types of problems encountered by families when a member went on crusade. How does this document reveal the relationship between Church spiritual and secular non-religious authority?

According to the poem, what is promised to those who take up the cross? What lies ahead for those who procrastinate?

The Crusades: Motivations, Administration, and Cultural Influence

Church and, sometimes, secular leaders granted crusaders both spiritual and earthly privileges in exchange for their participation. Pope Eugene III granted these privileges to crusaders in Sleep no more! The lark tells us know that the day is here And tells us in her songs That the day of peace has come Which God, in his great tenderness, Will give to those who for love of him Take the cross and for their burden Suffer pain both night and day.


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Then he will see who truly love him. So will he be, remember it well. He will have much pain and much insult On the Day of our Last Judgment When God his sides, palms and feet Will show bleeding and wounded. For even he who has done his best Will be so sore afraid That he will tremble, whether he wants to or not. He loved us like the finest friend And lovingly for us Carried with so much anguish The holy cross very gently Between his arms, before his breast, Like a gentle lamb, simple and devout.

Then he was nailed with three nails Painfully through his hands and through his feet. Do you know what God has promised To those who wish to take the cross? God help me, a very fair wage: Paradise, by firm promise. He who can gain his prize If mad if he waits until tomorrow. London: Edward Arnold, Many a man imagines that he has a very healthy heart And four days later he can no longer prize Either all his goods or his knowledge When he sees that death holds him on a rein, So that neither foot nor hand Can he move to shake it off or remove it.

He leaves his feather-bed and takes to the straw litter, But realizes his mistake too late. In Thomas Fuller, an English historian, published the first, modern, full-length account of the Crusades in English. Three more editions of his four-volume History of the Holy Warre appeared within the next decade. Fuller researched his subject extensively, drew on numerous sources, and included maps and a supplemental commentary in his history. Fuller was sharply critical of the papacy for promoting the Crusades and devoted nine chapters of The History of the Holy Warre to describing their failure.

A portrait of Baldwin, King of the Crusader state of Jerusalem — , appears on the top left of the image and, to the right, a portrait of Saladin, the Muslim sultan who defeated the crusaders and captured Jerusalem in British publisher Henry George Bohn included the second image below as the frontispiece to his Chronicles of the Crusades. Bohn writes that the image is a reproduction from a fourteenth-century illuminated manuscript. Describe the various groups that are represented here.

Who is taking this journey? Describe the two men portrayed at the top of the image. How do you interpret the meaning of the text surrounding the portraits? Explain the symbolism of the two buckets at the top of the image. What do their clothes and postures convey? Why do you think this event—in which Muslims who appeared to embrace Christianity acted as decoys before a military assault—seemed significant to historians of the Crusades? Fuller used multiple sources in this first full-length account of the Crusades published in English.

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This frontispiece portrays Muslims in approaching French knights, stationed near Tunis, to request baptism. While they talked, the Muslim army launched a surprise attack against the Christians. While anyone could join in a crusade, it became clear in later crusades that success often depended on having well-qualified personnel on the battlefield. Those best prepared came from the warrior classes: the knights, heavy cavalry armored front-line troops , and support personnel such as bowmen, foot soldiers, and siege engineers.

In later crusades, sailors were crucial as the journey to the Holy Land involved sea voyages. However, the knights were the core of the crusading forces and it was under their leadership that the armies were organized. Participating in a crusade became widely accepted as an important feature of knightly behavior. Deciding who would go on crusade was dictated by the social and political structure of the region. Kinship also influenced participation in a crusade.