Unlike pile foundations, the nonlinear Winkler model is not widely used for modeling cyclic soil—footing—structure interaction SFSI problems. Nonetheless, it has some important features that make it more attractive than conventional finite element approaches, and is a recommended approach in the FEMA design guideline.
This paper explores the strengths and limitations of the FEMA nonlinear Winkler modeling approach, when used in predicting the cyclic response of various recent SFSI experiments. The results of the study show that the model is capable of satisfactorily predicting all the different cyclic response quantities apart from permanent horizontal displacements. This should therefore be noted when using the approach in design. Settlements of Shallow Foundations on cohesionless soils.
This paper concisely presents a new method for the estimation of settlements of shallow foundations in cohesionless soils. The method includes a simplified model for the distribution of applied stresses with depth, incorporates certain Settlements of shallow foundations on cohesionless soils. Behavior of repeatedly loaded rectangular footings resting on reinforced sand.
The paper presents a laboratory study of the effect of geosynthetic reinforcement on the cumulative settlement of repeatedly loaded rectangular model footings placed on reinforced sand. Repeated load tests were carried out with different Repeated load tests were carried out with different initial monotonic load levels to This article analyses 1. In the analyses, a soil-shallow foundation-structure model that satisfies design building code requirements is utilized.
It has been identified that soil shear wave velocity, shear wave velocity degradation ratio, structure-to-soil stiffness ratio, and structural aspect ratio combined with the system stiffness are the key parameters whose variation significantly affects variation in structural response. The critical range of variation of these parameters resulting in a detrimental SSI effects is also defined. Related Topics. Seismic soil-structure interaction pile foundations. Follow Following. Bearing Capacity.
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Layered Soils. Civil Engineering. FPSF may also be useful in remodeling projects, as it helps minimize site disturbance.
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In addition to residential, commercial, and agricultural buildings, the technology has been applied to highways, dams, underground utilities, railroads, and earth embankments. Except for the insulation placement and footing depth, FPSF is similar to traditional foundations. While traditional systems are protected from frost-heave damage by placing the footing below the frost line, FPSF can be placed just mm to mm 12 in.
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The colder the climate, the further the wing insulation is extended. This can help reduce excavation depth and amount of concrete, making FPSF an economical alternative for frost-damage protection. Wing insulation may be unnecessary in moderate climates. Expanded-polystyrene products have been specified for over 30 years as sub-slab insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial floor systems.
With proper slab design, molded EPS insulation can deliver cost-effective thermal performance to the specifier and building owner. ASTM International C , Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation , is the standard covering the types, physical properties, and dimensions of cellular polystyrene intended for use as thermal insulation in the United States. When selecting a proper density for preliminary design, compressive properties of EPS insulation are available from various resources These properties will vary to some extent depending on the specific manufacturing techniques and raw materials employed.
It is important to note material properties provided in product standards may not allow for the correct material selection for every application when actual design conditions are taken into account. However, North American product standards are rarely intended for use as standards addressing all end-use design conditions. For instance, determining the thermal resistance in specific end-use applications is an inexact science due to the numerous conditions experienced by the rigid foam insulation.
However, EPS insulation is a rigid closed cell foam plastic that contains just air within its cellular structure—a characteristic that translates into a stable long-term R-value. R-value measures resistance to heat flow—the higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Some expanded polystyrene EPS manufacturers recommend a secondary system to provide frost protection—underfloor radiant heating to keep the floors warm.
The use of cross-linked polyethylene PEX pipes in similar systems was explored in the May issue of Modern Materials. Advantages of frost-protecting shallow foundations Thanks to rising energy costs and an increasing sensibility about environmental issues , energy efficiency and operating expenses are a prime consideration for owners of both residential and commercial structures. Builders and code officials initially responded by providing more thermal insulation in the above-grade portions of the home.
Shallow pad, strip and raft footings.
Instead, an uninsulated, conditioned basement may account for up to 50 percent of the heat loss in a house tightly sealed and well-insulated above grade. Only in the late s were national building energy codes and standards revised to recommend foundation insulation in moderate to cold climates. The minimum requirements generally exceed existing energy code requirements.
In addition to the initial cost savings achieved during construction, FPSF provides increased energy efficiencies due to its superior insulation properties. Some practical and economic advantages of FPSF , when installed properly, can include:.
- Frost-Protected Shallow Foundation Design - Green Building Solutions.
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The CMW design team has extensive experience in analysis, design and specification for shallow foundations. Our experience, frequently gained through working on foundation solutions associated with our geotechnical investigations, enables us help select the optimum foundation type for routine, low risk and problematical sites. Foundations Shallow Foundations Pile Foundations. Shallow Foundations Shallow pad, strip and raft footings.