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If you take a loop of wire and move it through a magnetic field, you generate an electric current.


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The charged particles in the wire are affected by the changing magnetic field , which forces some of them to move and creates the current. But now, picture the wire at rest and imagine the magnet is moving. In this case, the charged particles in the wire the electrons and protons aren't moving anymore, so the magnetic field shouldn't be affecting them. But it does, and a current still flows. This shows that there is no privileged frame of reference.

Thomas Moore, a professor of physics at Pomona College in Claremont, California, uses the principle of relativity to demonstrate why Faraday's Law , which states that a changing magnetic field creates an electric current, is true. Electromagnets work via relativity as well. When a direct current DC of electric charge flows through a wire, electrons are drifting through the material. Ordinarily the wire would seem electrically neutral, with no net positive or negative charge. That's a consequence of having about the same number of protons positive charges and electrons negative charges.

But, if you put another wire next to it with a DC current, the wires attract or repel each other, depending on which direction the current is moving. Assuming the currents are moving in the same direction, the electrons in the first wire see the electrons in the second wire as motionless.

This assumes the currents are about the same strength. Meanwhile, from the electrons' perspective, the protons in both wires look like they are moving. Because of the relativistic length contraction, they appear to be more closely spaced, so there's more positive charge per length of wire than negative charge. Since like charges repel, the two wires also repel.

Currents in the opposite directions result in attraction, because from the first wire's point of view, the electrons in the other wire are more crowded together, creating a net negative charge. Meanwhile, the protons in the first wire are creating a net positive charge, and opposite charges attract.


  1. Electromagnets.
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  5. In order for your car's GPS navigation to function as accurately as it does, satellites have to take relativistic effects into account. This is because even though satellites aren't moving at anything close to the speed of light, they are still going pretty fast. The satellites are also sending signals to ground stations on Earth. These stations and the GPS unit in your car are all experiencing higher accelerations due to gravity than the satellites in orbit. To get that pinpoint accuracy, the satellites use clocks that are accurate to a few billionths of a second nanoseconds.

    Several scientific groups, including one at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, are currently working to generate dark matter particles for study in the lab.

    Only five percent of the universe is visible. What is the rest made up of?

    Other scientists think the effects of dark matter could be explained by fundamentally modifying our theories of gravity. According to such ideas, there are multiple forms of gravity, and the large-scale gravity governing galaxies differs from the gravity to which we are accustomed.

    Dark energy is even more mysterious, and its discovery in the s was a complete shock to scientists.

    Previously, physicists had assumed that the attractive force of gravity would slow down the expansion of the universe over time. But when two independent teams tried to measure the rate of deceleration, they found that the expansion was actually speeding up. One scientist likened the finding to throwing a set of keys up in the air expecting them to fall back down-only to see them fly straight up toward the ceiling. Scientists now think that the accelerated expansion of the universe is driven by a kind of repulsive force generated by quantum fluctuations in otherwise "empty" space.

    What's more, the force seems to be growing stronger as the universe expands. For lack of a better name, scientists call this mysterious force dark energy. Unlike for dark matter, scientists have no plausible explanation for dark energy. According to one idea, dark energy is a fifth and previously unknown type of fundamental force called quintessence, which fills the universe like a fluid. Compound interest is the most powerful force in the universe.

    Fairy tales and more fairy tales. The story is given as follows: "In the current New Mexico Library Bulletin, Elizabeth Margulis tells a story of a woman who was a personal friend of the late dean of scientists, Dr. Albert Einstein. Motivated partly by her admiration for him, she held hopes that her son might become a scientist.

    One day she asked Dr. Einstein's advice about the kind of reading that would best prepare the child for this career. To her surprise, the scientist recommended 'Fairy tales and more fairy tales. Einstein persisted, adding that creative imagination is the essential element in the intellectual equipment of the true scientist, and that fairy tales are the childhood stimulus to this quality.

    Variant: "First, give him fairy tales; second, give him fairy tales, and third, give him fairy tales! Variant: "Fairy tales … More fairy tales … Even more fairy tales". Variant: "If you want your children to be brilliant, tell them fairy tales. If you want them to be very brilliant, tell them even more fairy tales. This version can be found in Usenet posts from before , like this one from Variant: "If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales.

    If you want them to be very intelligent, read them more fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales. Although similar to many of Einstein's comments about the importance of intuition and imagination, no sources for this can be found prior to The Psychology of Consciousness by Robert Evan Ornstein , p. A number of early sources from the s and s attribute it to The Intuitive Edge by Philip Goldberg , which also provides no original source.

    8 Ways You Can See Einstein's Theory of Relativity in Real Life

    Two things are infinite: the universe and the human stupidity. As discussed in this entry from The Quote Investigator , the earliest published attribution of a similar quote to Einstein seems to have been in Gestalt therapist Frederick S. Perls ' book Gestalt Theory Verbatim , where he wrote on p. Einstein has proved that the universe is limited. The quote itself may be a variant of a similar quote attributed even earlier to the philosopher Ernest Renan , found for example in The Public: Volume 18 from , which says on p.

    Since these variants have not been found in Renan's own writings, they may represent false attributions as well. They may also be variants of an even older saying; for example, the book Des vers by Guy de Maupassant includes on p.

    The Curvature of Spacetime

    The earth has its boundaries, but human stupidity is infinite! Aber beim Universum bin ich mir nicht ganz sicher. Coincidence is God's way of remaining anonymous. No original source where Einstein supposedly said this has been located, and it is absent from authoritative sources such as Calaprice, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein. Misattributed [ edit ] I fear the day that technology will surpass our human interaction.

    The world will have a generation of idiots. Variants : I fear the day when the technology overlaps with our humanity. The world will only have a generation of idiots.

    Einstein's theory of General Relativity

    I fear the day when technology overlaps our humanity. It will be then that the world will have permanent ensuing generations of idiots. Although it is a popular quote on the internet, there is no substantial evidence that Einstein actually said that. Contempt prior to investigation is what enslaves a mind to Ignorance. This or similar statements are more often misattributed to Herbert Spencer , but the source of the phrase "contempt prior to investigation" seems to have been William Paley , A View of the Evidences of Christianity : "The infidelity of the Gentile world, and that more especially of men of rank and learning in it, is resolved into a principle which, in my judgment, will account for the inefficacy of any argument, or any evidence whatever, viz.

    Then I looked to the great editors of the newspapers whose flaming editorials in days gone by had proclaimed their love of freedom; but they, like the universities, were silenced in a few short weeks. Then I looked to individual writers who, as literary guides of Germany, had written much and often concerning the place of freedom in modern life; but they, too, were mute. After the quote appeared in Time magazine 23 December , p. I made this statement during the first years of the Nazi-Regime — much earlier than — and my expressions were a little more moderate.

    Cornelius Greenway of Brooklyn, who asked if Einstein would write out the statement in his own hand, Einstein was more vehement in his repudiation of the statement 14 November [12] : The wording of the statement you have quoted is not my own. Einstein also made some scathingly negative comments about the behavior of the Church under the Nazi regime and its behavior towards Jews throughout history in a conversation with William Hermanns recorded in Hermanns' book Einstein and the Poet The concentration camps make the actions of Ghengis Khan look like child's play. But what makes me shudder is that the Church is silent.

    One doesn't need to be a prophet to say, 'The Catholic Church will pay for this silence. Hermanns, you will live to see that there is moral law in the universe. There are cosmic laws, Dr. They cannot be bribed by prayers or incense.